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1 FISCAL-MILITARY SYSTEM PROJECT BIBLIOGRAPHY Introduction and User Guide This Bibliography has been compiled as part of the European Fiscal Military System c.1530-1870 project (FMSystem) funded by the European Research Council (ERC-2017-ADG 787504). It has grown organically through several revisions as a tool to assist the project team and we are making it publicly available in the hope that it will assist others who are interested in similar topics. The Bibliography’s structure reflects that of the project in that it is built around Concepts (Section A), covering key areas of debate, approaches, and definitions, as well as our primary research topics. These are: Agents and Actors (Section B), covering those who were involved in transactions; Fiscal Military Assets (Section C), subdivided into entries for each of our six asset categories; and our Case Studies (Section F). The latter includes works relevant to the role of each city’s role as a fiscal military ‘hub’. More theoretical or general works on hubs are separated as Subsection F1. We have added some additional subsections to cover places which are beyond our six primary case studies of Amsterdam (F2), the Baltic region (F3), Geneva (F4), Genoa (F6), London (F8), and Vienna (F10). We have also created thematic sections to cover broader Economic Aspects (Section D); the Dismantling of the FMSy during the nineteenth century (Section E); and Global Comparisons (Section G). The latter section is not intended to be comprehensive, but nonetheless hopes to capture the most relevant material and approaches to extend an understanding of what was happening in Europe and how that might have differed or mirrored the situation elsewhere in the world. Inevitably, none of the sections are entirely watertight and, depending on the guiding question, relevant material can often be found throughout the Bibliography. We have included some material in multiple sections, but we also recommend using the overview list at the start of the Bibliography to seek other material. For example, Subsections A1.2 Taxation in Individual States and C4 Finance and Credit contain many references not also included in Section E on Economic Aspects. Likewise, there are many items covering the gradual dismantling of the system in several of the subsections on Personnel (Subsection C1). The Bibliography currently contains material in Czech, Danish, Dutch, English, French, German, Hungarian, Italian, Polish, Spanish, Swedish. We hope to expand this in a revised version. (see also www.oxfordbibliograhies.com: “Fiscal-Military State”, “Warfare and Military Organizations”, and “War and Trade”)

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FISCAL-MILITARY SYSTEM PROJECT BIBLIOGRAPHY - [PDF Document] (3)

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FISCAL-MILITARY SYSTEM PROJECT BIBLIOGRAPHY

Introduction and User Guide

This Bibliography has been compiled as part of the European Fiscal Military System c.1530-1870 project (FMSystem) funded by the European Research Council (ERC-2017-ADG 787504). It has grown organically through several revisions as a tool to assist the project team and we are making it publicly available in the hope that it will assist others who are interested in similar topics.

The Bibliography’s structure reflects that of the project in that it is built around Concepts (Section A), covering key areas of debate, approaches, and definitions, as well as our primary research topics. These are: Agents and Actors (Section B), covering those who were involved in transactions; Fiscal Military Assets (Section C), subdivided into entries for each of our six asset categories; and our Case Studies (Section F). The latter includes works relevant to the role of each city’s role as a fiscal military ‘hub’. More theoretical or general works on hubs are separated as Subsection F1. We have added some additional subsections to cover places which are beyond our six primary case studies of Amsterdam (F2), the Baltic region (F3), Geneva (F4), Genoa (F6), London (F8), and Vienna (F10).

We have also created thematic sections to cover broader Economic Aspects (Section D); the Dismantling of the FMSy during the nineteenth century (Section E); and Global Comparisons (Section G). The latter section is not intended to be comprehensive, but nonetheless hopes to capture the most relevant material and approaches to extend an understanding of what was happening in Europe and how that might have differed or mirrored the situation elsewhere in the world.

Inevitably, none of the sections are entirely watertight and, depending on the guiding question, relevant material can often be found throughout the Bibliography. We have included some material in multiple sections, but we also recommend using the overview list at the start of the Bibliography to seek other material. For example, Subsections A1.2 Taxation in Individual States and C4 Finance and Credit contain many references not also included in Section E on Economic Aspects. Likewise, there are many items covering the gradual dismantling of the system in several of the subsections on Personnel (Subsection C1).

The Bibliography currently contains material in Czech, Danish, Dutch, English, French, German, Hungarian, Italian, Polish, Spanish, Swedish. We hope to expand this in a revised version.

(see also www.oxfordbibliograhies.com: “Fiscal-Military State”, “Warfare and Military Organizations”, and “War and Trade”)

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Section A: Concepts A1 Fiscal-Military State

A1.1 FMS Studies A1.2 Taxation in individual states

A2 Contractor State A3 Sovereignty A4 International Order A5 War and the State

Section B: Agents and Actors B1 Contractors, Enterprisers and Entrepreneurs B2 Patronage B3 Corruption B4 Networks B5 Trust

Section C: Fiscal-Military Assets C1 Personnel

C1.1 Mercenaries – definition C1.2 Mercenaries as migration C1.3 Foreign soldiers C1.4 PMSCs C1.5 Recruitment C1.6 Privateering C1.7 Prisoners C1.8 Hospitals

C2. Expertise C3. Information and Intelligence C4. Finance

C4.1 General C4.2 War finance C4.3 Subsidies and pensions C4.4 Credit and Debt

C5. War Materials C5.1 General C5.2 Liege Arms Production C5.3 Naval Stores C5.4 Horses C5.5 Logistics

C6. Services C6.1 Ports C6.2 Transit

Section D: Economic Aspects D1 General D2 Mercantilism D3 War and Economics D4 Contracts and Treaties

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D5 Trade

Section E: Dismantling the FMSy E1 General E2 Foreign Fighters E3 Neutrality

Section F: Case Studies F1. Cities and Hubs F2. Amsterdam F3. Danzig/Baltic F4. Geneva and the Swiss Confederacy F5. Savoy-Piedmont F6. Genoa F7. Hamburg F8. London F9. Riga F10. Vienna F11. Venice F12. Italian States

Section G: Global Comparisons

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SECTION A: CONCEPTS

A1. Fiscal-Military State Blockmans, Wim (ed.), Fiscal Systems in the European Economy from the 13th to the 18th Centuries(Firenze, 2008)

Bonney, R., The Rise of the Fiscal State in Europe, c.1200-1815 (Oxford, 1999).

Bonney, R., ‘Towards the comparative fiscal history of Britain and France during the “long” eighteenth century’, in L. Prados de la Escosura (ed.), Exceptionalism and Industrialisation: Britain and its European Rivals, 1688-1815 (New York, 2004).

Bowen, Huw V., and A. Gonzáles Encisco (eds.), Mobilising resources for war: Britain and Spain at work during the early modern period (Pamplona: EUNSA, 2006). ‘Examines the domestic impact of the company in terms of the state, its finances, and military power as well as trade.’

Brewer, J., The sinews of power. War, money and the English state 1688-1783 (New York, 1989). ‘Influential and readable case for the transformations, costs, and tensions involved in Britain’s war effort. Shows the success and flexibility of the British model.’

Brewer, J., and E. Hellmuth (eds.), Rethinking Leviathan. The eighteenth-century state in Britain and Europe (New York, 1999). ‘A useful comparative study of two states that appeared to earlier historians to offer different state-building models, with Prussia epitomizing the strong, absolutist, bureaucratic state, contrasted with Britain’s weaker, consensual, and self-governing one. The essays challenge some of these assumptions.’

Conca Messina, Silvia A. A History of States and Economic Policies in Early Modern Europe. Perspectives in economic and social history 57. New York: Routledge, 2019.

Contamine, Philippe, and Wim Blockmans, eds. War and Competition Between States. The origins of the modern state in Europe 13th to 18th centuries / general ed. Wim Blockmans … European Science Foundation; Theme A. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2000.

Daunton, M., ‘The Fiscal Military State and the Napoleonic Wars: Britain and France compared’, in David Cannadine (ed.), Trafalgar in history. A battle and its afterlife (Basingstoke, 2006), pp. 18-43.

Dickson, P.G.M., The Financial Revolution in England. A Study in the Development of Public Credit 1688-1736 (London, 1967). ‘Pioneering study of the fiscal mechanisms that developed after the Glorious Revolution, and how British governments adapted and reacted to both the opportunities and obstacles presented by the new financial environment.’

Dørum, Knut, Mats Hallenberg, and Kimmo Katajala (eds.), Bringing the People Back in: State Building from Below in the Nordic Countries Ca. 1500-1800 (New York: Routledge, 2021).

Dunning, C. and N.S. Smith, ‘Moving beyond absolutism. Was early modern Russia a “Fiscal-Military State”?’, Russian History, 33 (2006), pp. 19-43.

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Özvar, Erol., ‘Transformation of the Ottoman Empire into a Military-Fiscal State: Reconsidering the Financing of War from a Global Perspective’, in Pál Fodor (ed.), The Battle for Central Europe (Leiden: Brill, 2019), pp.21–63.

Glete, Jan., War and the State in Early Modern Europe: Spain, the Dutch Republic, and Sweden as Fiscal-military States, 1500–1660 (London, 2002). ‘Examines the economic underpinning of standing forces. Glete pays particular attention to the interplay of special-interest groups within early fiscal-military states (particularly Spain, the Dutch Republic, and Sweden) and how such influences affected the direction of state policy and military development.’

Godsey, William D., The sinews of Habsburg power: Lower Austria as a Fiscal-Military State (Oxford, 2018)

Graham, Aaron, and P. Walsh (eds.), The British fiscal military states 1660-c.1783 (Farnham, 2016).

Hadügyi forradalom - fiskális állam - fiskális-katonai állam Európában a 16-18. században. [Military Revolution – Fiscal state – Fiscal-military State in Europe in the 16-18th centuries] Századok 152. évf. 5. sz. (2018.) Thematic issue of the journal of the Hungarian Historical Society. A good overview of the Hungarian reception and criticism of the concept of the fiscal-military state. Abstracts in English. Content: B. Szabó János: A félreértett „hadügyi forradalom”. Egy hadtörténeti eredetű globális világmagyarázat terjedésének dinamikája [Military Revolution Misunderstood. The Dynamics of Expansion of a Global Paradigm of Military Historical Origins] 939-960 Ágoston Gábor: Oszmán hadügyi változások a 16–18. században [Changes in the Ottoman Military Organisation in the Sixteenth to Eighteenth Centuries] 961-980 Korpás Zoltán: A fiskális-katonai állam és a katolikus monarchia a 16–17. században [The Fiscal-Military State and the Catholic Monarchy in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries] 981-1012 Sashalmi Endre: A 17–18. századi Oroszország mint fiskális-katonai állam [Russia in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries as a Fiscal-Military State] 1013-1032 Kenyeres István–Pálffy Géza: A Habsburg Monarchia és a Magyar Királyság had- és pénzügyigazgatásának fejlődése a 16–17. században. Modellek és értelmezési lehetőségeik [The Fiscal and Military Transformation of the Habsburg Monarchy and the Kingdom of Hungary in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries] 1033-1076 Oross András: A magyarországi végvidéki katonaság járandóságai a 17. század közepén [Paying the Garrisons of the Hungarian Border Forts in the Middle of the Seventeenth Century] 1077-1094 Szántay Antal: A Habsburg Monarchia és pénzügyei a 18. században [The Habsburg Monarchy and its Finances in the Eighteenth Century] 1095-1126 Schramek László Péter: A magyar vármegyék szerepe a Habsburg Monarchia haderejének finanszírozásában. Egy 1730. évi felmérés tapasztalatai [The Role of the Hungarian Counties in Financing the Military Forces of the Habsburg Monarchy. The Experiences of a 1730 Survey] 1127-1150

Harling, Philip/Peter Mandler, ‘From “Fiscal-Military” to “Laissex-Faire” state, 1760-1815’, Journal of British Studies, 32 (1993), 44-70

Hattendorf, John B, ‘English Governmental Machinery and the Conduct of War, 1702-1713,’ War and

Society 3 (1985).

Hattendorf, John B., England in the War of the Spanish Succession: A Study of the English View and

Conduct of Grand Strategy, 1702-12 (1987).

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Hoffman, P.T., and K. Norberg (eds.), Fiscal Crises, Liberty and Representative Government (Stanford, 1994).

Howard, Michael, War in European History (Oxford: Oxford UP, updated edition 2009) Classic study on war and the European state system with a sequence of forms of war from the war of the knights, mercenaries, merchants, professionals to the wars of the Revolution, the nations, and the technologists.

Hutchinson, John, Nationalism and War (Oxford: Oxford UP, 2017) This volume examines the changing relationship between warfare, its changing forms, and the rise of the nation as a political category

Jacob, Frank; Visoni-Alonzo, Gilmar, The Military Revolution in Early Modern Europe. A Revision (London: Palgrave, 2016)

Kaspersen, Lars Bo, and Jeppe Strandsbjerg, Does War Make States?: Investigations of Charles Tilly’s Historical Sociology (Cambridge University Press, 2017).

Mann, Michael, ‘Putting the Weberian state in its social, geopolitical and militaristic context: A response to Patrick O’Brien’, Journal of Historical Sociology, 19 (2006), 364-73

Monson, Andrew/Walter Scheidel (eds.), Fiscal Regimes and the Political Economy of Premodern States(Cambridge, 2015) [mostly ancient empires, but has chapters on theory and on debt]

Nexon, Daniel H., The Struggle for Power in Early Modern Europe. Religious Conflict, Dynastic Empires, and International Change (Princeton: Princeton UP, 2009)

O’Brien, Patrick K., and Philip A. Hunt. ‘The Rise of a Fiscal State in England, 1485–1815’, Historical Research, 66 (1993), pp. 129–176. ‘Frequently cited article by economic historians charting the emergence of a “fiscal state” over a long early modern period, emphasizing 17th- as much as 18th-century developments.’

Parker, Geoffrey, The Military Revolution: Military Innovation and the Rise of the West, 1500-1800. Reprint (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1990) Classic study

Pincus, Steven/James Robinson, ‘Faire la guerre et faire l’Etat: Nouvelles perspectives sur l’essor de l’Etat dévelopmentaliste’, Annales HSS, 71 no.1 (2016), 7-35

Rauscher, P., A. Serles, and T. Winkelbauer (eds.), Das ‘Blut des Staatskörpers’: Forschungen zur Finanzgeschichte der Frühen Neuzeit (HZ Beiheft 56) (Munich, 2012).

Rodger, N.A.M., ‘From the “Military Revolution” to the “Fiscal-Naval State’, Journal of Maritime Research, 13 (2011), pp. 119-28.

Rogers, Clifford J. The Military Revolution Debate: Readings on the Military Transformation of Early Modern Europe. History and Warfare (Boulder: Routledge, 2018)

Stone, Laurence (ed.), An Imperial State at War: Britain from 1689 to 1815 (London: Routledge, 1994).

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‘Important collection of essays engaging with Brewer 1989. The variety of approaches utilized by this collection’s contributors shows the range and scope of the questions raised by Brewer.’

Storrs, C., (ed.), The fiscal-military state in eighteenth-century Europe (Farnham, 2009). ‘As well as an introductory overview, and the context of international rivalry (by Hamish Scott), also included are essays on Austria, Prussia, Russia, France, and Savoy/Sardinia.’

Strayer, Joseph R., On the Medieval Origins of the Modern State (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2016). With forewords by Charles Tilly and William Chester Jordan.

Torres Sánchez, Rafael, Constructing a Fiscal-Military State in eighteenth-century Spain (Farnham, 2015).

Torres Sánchez, R., (ed.), War, state and development. Fiscal-Military States in the eighteenth century (Pamplona, 2007).

Tilly, C., Coercion, capital and European states AD990-1992 (Oxford, 1992).

Tilly, C., The Formation of National States in Western Europe (Princeton: Princeton UP, 1975)

Ullmann, Hans Peter, Der deutsche Steuerstaat: Geschichte der öffentlichen Finanzen vom 18. Jahrhundert bis heute (Munich: C.H. Beck, 2005)

Wheeler, J.S., The making of a world power. War and the military revolution in seventeenth-century England (Stroud, 1999). ‘Focusing on the period of 1639–1674, shows how military pressures forced the British state to professionalize its army and (especially) navy, and to construct a fiscal-administrative apparatus to pay for it. The creation of the standing army and navy both built the state and made Britain one of the great European powers.’

Yun-Casalilla, B., and P.K. O'Brien (eds.), The rise of fiscal states. A global history, 1500-1914 (Cambridge, 2012).

A1.2 Taxation in individual states Alfani, Guido, and Matteo Di Tullio. The Lion's Share: Inequality and the Rise of the Fiscal State in Preindustrial Europe. Cambridge studies in economic history. (Cambridge 2019)

Balla, E, and N.D. Johnson, Fiscal crises and institutional change in the Ottoman Empire and France’, Journal of Economic History, 69 (2009), 809-45

Beckett, J.V., ‘The land tax or excise: the levying of taxation in seventeenth and eighteenth-century England’, English Historical Review, 100 (1985), 285-308

Blockmans, Wim (ed.), Fiscal systems in the European economy from the 13th to the 18th centuries(Florence, 2008: Firenze UP)

Bonney, Richard, ‘Towards the comparative fiscal history of Britain and France during the “long” eighteenth century’, in L. Prados de la Escosura (ed.), Exceptionalism and industrialisation: Britain and its European rivals, 1688-1815 (New York, 2004: CUP)

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Cardoso, José Luís, and Pedro Lains (eds.), Paying for the Liberal State: The Rise of Public Finance in Nineteenth-Century Europe (Cambridge: CUP, 2010)

Darling, Linda T., Revenue-raising and Legitimacy: Tax Collection and Finance Administration in the Ottoman Empire, 1560-1660 (Leiden, 1996: Brill)

Dinecco, Mark, ‘Fiscal centralization, limited government and public revenues in Europe 1650-1913’, Journal of Economic History, 69 (009), 48-108

Edelmayer, Friedrich/Maximilian Lanzinner/Peter Rauscher(eds.), Finanzen und Herrschaft. Materiellen Grundlagen fürstlicher Politik in den habsburgischen Ländern und im Heiligen Römischen Reich des 16. Jahrhunderts (Vienna/Munich, 2003): Oldenbourg)

Fodor, Pál, The Business of State. Ottoman Finance Administration and Ruling Elites in Transition (1580s–1615) (Berlin, 2018).

Fritschy, Wantje, ‘Taxation in Britain, France and the Netherlands in the Eighteenth Century’, Economicand Social History in the Netherlands, 2 (1990), 57-79.

Fritschy, Wantje, Public Finance of the Dutch Republic in Comparative Perspective (Leiden: Brill, 2017)

Hope-Jones, A, Income Tax in the Napoleonic Wars (Cambridge UP, 1939)

Karaman, K.K., and S. Pamuk, ‘Ottoman state finances in European perspective, 1500-1914’, Journal of Economic History, 70 (2010), 593-629

Kenyeres, István, ‘A királyi Magyarország bevételei és kiadásai a 16. században’ [The Income and Expenditure of Royal Hungary in the 16th century.] Levéltári Közlemények 74. (2003) 59-103. https://library.hungaricana.hu/hu/view/LeveltariKozlemenyek_74/?pg=60&layout=s

Kenyeres, István, ‚Die Finanzen des Königreichs Ungarn in der zweiten Hälfte des 16. Jahrhunderts‘, in Friedrich Edelmayer/Maximilian Lanzinner/Peter Rauscher (eds.), Finanzen und Herrschaft. Materielle Grundlagen fürstlicher Politik in den habsburgischen Ländern und im Heiligen Römischen Reich im 16. Jahrhundert (Veröffentlichungen des Instituts für Österreichische Geschichtsforschung Band 38.) (Vienna: Oldenbourg, 2003), pp.84-122.

Kenyeres, István, ‘Die Einkünfte und Reformen der Finanzverwaltung Ferdinands I.‘, in Martina Fuchs/Teréz Oborni/Gábor Ujváry (eds.), Ungarn, in Kaiser Ferdinand I. Ein mitteleuropäischer Herrscher (Münster: Aschendorff, 2005), pp.111-46.

Kenyeres, István, ‘Die Kriegsausgaben der Habsburgermonarchie von der Mitte des 16. Jahrhunderts bis zum ersten Drittel des 17. Jahrhunderts‘, in Peter Rauscher (ed.), Kriegführung und Staatsfinanzen. Die Habsburgermonarchie und das Heilige Römische Reich vom Dreißigjährigen Krieg bis zum Ende des habsburgischen Kaisertums 1740 (Münster, Aschendorff, 2010), pp.41-80.

Kenyeres, István, ‚Die Kosten der Türkenabwehr und des langen Türkenkrieges (1593–1606) im Kontext der ungarischen Finanzen des 16. und 17. Jahrhunderts‘, in Peter Rauscher/Andrea Serles/Thomas

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Winkelbauer (eds.), Das „Blut des Staatskörpers” (Historische Zeitschrift Beiheft 56) (München, 2012), pp.19-41.

Kenyeres, István, ‘Grundherrschaften und Grenzfestungen. Die Kammerherrschaften und die Türkenabwehr im Königreich Ungarn des 16. Jahrhunderts‘, in István Fazekas–Krisztián Csaplár-Degovics (eds.), Geteilt - Vereinigt: Beiträge zur Geschichte des Königreichs Ungarn in der Frühneuzeit (16. - 18. Jahrhundert) (Berlin, 2011), pp.98-129.

Kloosterhuis, Jürgen/Wolfgang Neugebauer (eds.), Krise, Reformen und Finanzen: Preussen vor und nach der Katastrophe von 1806 (Berlin, 2008)

Morriss, Roger, The Foundations of British Maritime Ascendency: Resources, Logistics and the State, 1755-1815 (Cambridge, 2011)

North, Michael, ‘Finances and power in the German state system’, in B. Yun-Casalila/P.K. O’Brien (eds.), The Rise of Fiscal States (Cambridge, 2012), 145-63

O’Brien, Patrick Karl, ‘The nature and historical evolution of an exceptional fiscal state and its possible significance for the precocious commercialization and industrialization of the British economy from Cromwell to Nelson’, Economic History Review, 64 (2011), 408-46

Ormrod, W/ Richard Bonney/M. Bonney (eds.), Crises, Revolutions and Self-Sustained Growth: Essays in European Fiscal History, 1130-1830 (Stanford, 1999)

Otruba, G./M. Weiss (eds.), Beiträge zur Finazgeschichte Österreichs: Staatshaushalt und Steuern 1740-1840 (Linz, 1986: Trauner)

Rauscher, Peter, ‘Camerale, Contributionale, Creditors and Crisis: The Finances of the Habsburg Empire from the Battle of Mohács to the Thirty Year’s War’, in Pál Fodor (ed.),The Battle for Central Europe(Leiden: Brill, 2019), pp.193-212. https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004396234_010.

t’Hart, Marjolein/Pepijn Brandon/Rafael Torres Sánchez, ‘Maximising revenues, minimising political costs – challenges in the history of public finance of the early modern period’, Financial History Review, 25 (2018), 1-18

Tondeur, Maxime, ‘Les “Observations regardantes l’état militaire et son oeconomie aux Païs-Bas autrichiens, 1752’’ : Une étude sur la composition et le financement de l’appareil militaire dans les Pays-Bas au milieu du 18e siècle’, Bulletin de la Commission royale d’histoire, 179 (2013), 51-156.

Ullmann, Hans Peter, Die deutsche Steuerstaat: Geschichte der öffentlichen Finanzen vom 18. Jahrhundert bis heute (Munich, 2005: CH Beck)

Webber, C., and A. Wildavsky, A History of Taxation and Expenditure in the Western World (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1986).

A2. Contractor State

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NB special issue of Business History, 60 no.1 (2018), on the ‘Business of War’

Bannerman, G., Merchants and the Military in Eighteenth-Century Britain. British Army Contracts and Domestic Supply, 1739-1763 (London, 2008). Focus on the demand side/the state and its efficiency of the state versus private contractors. aims to discuss all contributing ‘sectors’, suppliers of military resources to the parties in the Civil War. London merchants as military contractors. Ch. 6 case study of John Willam, research obstacle due to loss of business papers.

Bowen, H.V., and Agustín Gonzáles Encisco (eds.), Mobilising resources for war: Britain and Spain at work during the early modern period (Pamplona, 2006).

Bowen, H. V., ‘Forum: the Contractor State, c. 1650–1815’, International Journal of Maritime History, 25.1 (2013), pp. 239–274. ‘A recent survey of specialists on contractor states who compare their views on the Dutch, British, Spanish, French, and Portuguese cases, with the findings of Knight and Wilcox 2010. Includes a response of these two authors to the perspectives offered by the forum’s participants.’

Conway S. and R. Torres Sánchez (eds.), The Spending of States: Military Expenditure during the Long Eighteenth Century. Patterns, Organization and Consequences, 1650-1815 (Saarbrücken, 2011). [Contractor State; http://www.unav.edu/web/facultad-de-ciencias-economicas-y-empresariales/contractor-state]

Fynn-Paul, Jeff, War, Entrepreneurs, and the State in Europe and the Mediterranean, 1300-1800 (Leiden, 2014).

Harding, Richard and Sergio Solbes Ferri (eds.), The Contractor States and its Implications (1659-1815) (Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 2012). ‘The proceedings of the forth conference of the Contractor State Group in 2011. Although participants cover Asia and supplies to continental army, the bulk of the volume concerns European navies.’

Knight, Roger, and Martin Wilcox, Sustaining the Fleet, 1793-1815: War, the British Navy and the Contractor State (Woodbridge, 2010). ‘A reference work on the contactor state. Presents the private supply of victualing, resources, and ships to the British Navy during the French Wars.’

Parrott, D. The business of war. Military enterprise and the military revolution in early modern Europe(Cambridge, 2012). Rejects the supposed inevitability of state-controlled armies and rather shows the effectiveness of new private-public partnerships and the continuously essential role of private enterprise in warfare also after 1650. Focus on military commanders.

Redlich, F., The German Military Enterpriser and his Work Force, 14th to 18th Centuries. Vierteljahrschrift für Sozial- und Wirtschaftsgeschichte 47/48 (2 vols., Wiesbaden, 1964). Military enterprise as an economic system; state building and inherent decay of private military enterprise after 1650. ‘An economic historian’s perspective on the German mercenary soldiers of the period and the entrepreneur officers who recruited, paid, managed, and led them as a form of business enterprise from 1350 to 1650 (mainly 1600–1650). Addresses the relationships among pay, credit, and discipline; logistics and the exaction of “contributions” for the support of the troops; opportunities for profit and increases in social status; and the living conditions of soldiers and officers.’

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Rafael Torres Sánchez (ed.), War, State and Development. Fiscal-Military States in the Eighteenth Century (Pamplona, 2007).

Rafael Torres Sánchez, Military entrepreneurs and the Spanish contractor state in the eighteenth century (Oxford, 2016).

A3. Sovereignty Abrams, P., ‘Notes on the difficulty of defining the state’, Journal of Historical Sociology, 1 (1988), 59-89

Bartelson, Jens, The Genealogy of Sovereignty (Cambridge, 1995)

Benton, Lauren, A search for sovereignty: law and geography in European empires, 1400-1900(Cambridge, 2010)

Bom, Erik de, Randall C. Lesaffer, and Werner Thomas (eds.), Early Modern Sovereignties: Theory and Practice of a Burgeoning Concept in the Netherlands (Leiden, 2021)

Branch, Jordan, The Cartographic State: Maps, Territory, and the Origins of Sovereignty (Cambridge, 2014)

Crawford, James, The Creation of States in International Law (2nd ed., Oxford, 2007)

Elden, Stuart, The Birth of Territory (Chicago, 2013) [ancient to 17th century]

Elliott, John H., 'A Europe of composite monarchies', Past and Present, 137 (1992), 48-71.

Fabry, M., Recognizing States: International Society and the Establishment of New States since 1776(Oxford, 2010)

Finkelstein, Claire O., and Michael Skerter (eds.), Sovereignty and the New Executive Authority: Ethics, National Security and the Rule of Law (Oxford, 2019)

Fowler, Michael Ross/Julie Marie Bunck, Law, Power and the Sovereign State: The Evolution and Application of the Concept of Sovereignty (University Park, PA, 1995)

Glanville, Luke, Sovereignty and the Responsibility to Protect (Chicago UP, 2013)

Glanville, Luke, ‘The myth of “traditional” sovereignty’, International Studies Quarterly, 57 (2013), 79-90

Grimm, Dieter, Sovereignty: the origins and future of a political and legal concept (Columbia UP, 2015)

Jackson, Robert, Sovereignty: the evolution of an idea (Cambridge, 2007)

Kalmo, Hent, and Quentin Skinner (eds), Sovereignty in fragments: the past, present and future of a contested concept (Cambridge, 2010)

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Krasner, Stephen D., Sovereignty: Organised Hypocrisy (Princeton, 1999)

Krasner, Stephen D., ‘Rethinking the sovereign state model’, Review of International Studies, 27 no.5 (2001), 17-42

Krischer, André, ‘Souveränität als sozialer Status. Zur Funktion des diplomatischen Zeremoniells in der Frühen Neuzeit, in Jan-Paul Niederkorn/Ralf Kauz/Giorgio Rota (eds.), Diplomatisches Zeremoniell in Europa und dem Mittleren Osten in der Frühen Neuzeit (Archiv für Österreichische Geschichte, 141), (Vienna, 2009), pp.1-32

Krischer, André/Hillard von Thiessen, ‘Diplomacy in a Global Early Modernity: The Ambiguity of Sovereignty’, The International History Review, 32 (2018), 1-8

Maogoto, J.N., State Sovereignty and International Criminal Law: Versailles to Rome (New York: Transnational Publishers Inc., 2003)

Simpson, Gerry, Great Powers and Outlaw States: Unequal Sovereigns in the International Legal Order(Cambridge, 2004)

Spruyt, Hendrik, The Sovereign State and its Competitors. An Analysis of Systems Change (Princeton: Princeton UP, 1994)

Stuart Brundage, Jonah, ‘The social sources of geopolitical power: French and British diplomacy and the politics of interstate recognition, 1689 to 1789’, American Sociological Review, 83 no.6 (2018), 1254-80

Teschke, Benno, The Myth of 1648: Class, Geopolitics and the Making of Modern International Relations(London, 2003)

A4 International Order Anderson, M. S. The Origins of the Modern European State System, 1494-1618. The modern European state system. London, New York: Longman, 1998.

Chowdhury, Arjun, The Myth of Interantional Order: Why Weak States Persist and Alternatives to the State Fade-Away (Oxford, 2017)

Desch, Michael, ‘War and state strength’, International Organization, 50 no.2 (1996), 237-68

Duchhardt, Heinz, Balance of Power und Pentarchie: Internationale Beziehungen 1700-1785 (Paderborn: Schöningh, 1997)

Friedrichs, Jörg, ‘The Meaning of New Medievalism’, European Journal of International Relations, 7 (4) (2001), 475–501.

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13

Ghervas, Stella, ‘Balance of power vs perpetual peace: Paradigms of European order from Utrecht to Vienna, 1713-1815’, International History Review, 39 (2017), 404-25

Hall, Rodney Bruce, National Collective Identity: Social Constructs and International Systems (New York, 1999: Columbia University Press)

Hall, Rodney Bruce, and Thomas J. Biersteker, The Emergence of Private Authority in Global Governance(Cambridge, 2002: Cambridge University Press)

Hennings, Jan, Russia and Courtly Europe: Ritual and the Culture of Diplomacy, 1648-1725 (Cambridge: CUP, 2018)

Hey, Mark Edward, ‘The House of Nassau between France and Independence, 1795-1814: Lesser powers, strategies of conflict resolution, dynastic networks’, International History Review, 38 (2016), 482-504

Isom-Verhaaren, Christine, Allies with the Infidel: The Ottoman and French Alliance in the Sixteenth Century (London: Tauris, 2011)

Kennedy, Paul M., The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers. Economic Change and Military Conflict from 1500-2000 (London: William Collins, 2017)

Kontler, László/Somos, Mark (eds.), Trust and Happiness in the History of European Political Thought(Leiden, 2007)

Maass, Matthias, Small States in World Politics: The Story of Small State Survival, 1648-2018(Manchester, 2017)

Neff, Stephen C., War and the Law of Nations: A General History (Cambridge, 2005)

Neff, Stephen C., The Rights and Duties of Neutrals: A General History (Manchester, 1990)

Neilson, K./R.A. Prete (eds.), Coalition Warfare: An Uneasy Record (Waterloo, Ontario, 1983)

Onneking, David/Gys Rommelse (eds.), Ideology and Foreign Policy in Early Modern Europe, 1650-1750(Farnham, 2011)

Osiander, A., Before the State: Systemic Political Change in the West from the Greeks to the French Revolution (Oxford, 2007)

Phillips, Andrew; Sharman, J.C., Outsourcing Empire. How Company-States Made the Modern World(Princeton: Princeton UP, 2020)

Philpott, Daniel, Revolutions in Sovereignty: How Ideas Shaped Modern Inernational Relations(Princeton, 2001)

Rosenau, James N., and Ernst-Otto Czempiel, Governance without Government: Order and Change in World Politics (Cambridge, 1992: Cambridge University Press)

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Rothstein, Robert L., Alliances and Small Powers (New York, 1968)

Ruggie, John Gerard, ‘Territoriality and beyond: Problematizing Modernity in International Relations’, International Organization 47 (1) (1993), 139

Ruggie, John Gerard, ‘Continuity and transformation in the world polity: Towards a neorealist synthesis’, World Politics, 35 (1983), 261-85

Sassen, Saskia, Territory, Authority, Rights: From Medieval to Global Assemblages (Princeton, N.J., 2008: Princeton University Press)

Scott, Hamish M., The Birth of a Great Power System, 1740-1815 (London: Routledge, 2015).

Snyder, Glenn H., Alliance Politics (Ithaca, NY., 1993)

Sowerby, Tracey A., and Jan Hennings (eds.), Practices of Diplomacy in the Early Modern World c.1410-1800 (London: Routledge, 2017)

Teschke, Benno, The Myth of 1648: Class, Geopolitics and the Making of Modern International Relations(London: Verso, 2003)

Watkins, John, After Lavinia: A Literary History of Premodern Marriage (Itahca: Cornell, 2017)

Watts, John, The Making of Politics: Europe 1300-1500 (Cambridge, 2009)

Zielinski, Rosella Cappella/Paul Poast, ‘Supplying allies: Political economy of coalition warfare’, Journal of Global Security Studies, 6 (1) (2021),

A5 War and the State

Attar, Frank, La Révolution française déclare la guerre à l’Europe (Brussels, 1992)

Bianchi, Serge/Dupuy, Roger (eds.), La Garde nationale entre nation et people en armes: Mythes et réalités, 1789-1871 (Rennes, 2006)

Blanning, T.C.W., The Origins of the French Revolutionary Wars (London and New York: 2nd ed., Routledge, 2014)

Broers, Michael, Napoleonic Imperialism and the Savoyard Monarchy, 1773-1821: State-Building in Piedmont (New York: Lampeter, 1997).

Davis, D.E./A.W. Pereira (eds.), Irregular Armed Forces and their Role in Politics and State Formation(Cambridge, 2003: CUP)

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Desch, Michael, ‘War and strong states, peace and weak states?’, International Organization, 50 (1996), 237-68

Dupuy, Roger, La Garde Nationale, 1789-1872 (Paris, 2010: Gallimand)

Fodor, Pál/Geza David (eds.), Ottomans, Hungarians, and Habsburgs in Central Europe. The Military Confines in the Era of Ottoman Conquest (Leiden: Brill, 2012)

Ágoston, Gábor, ‘Ottoman and Habsburg Military Afffairs in the Age of Süleyman the Magnifijicent’, In Pál Fodor (ed.), The Battle for Central Europe (Leiden: Brill, 2019), pp.287–307.

Gunn, S., Grummitt, D. and Cools, H., War, State, and Society in England and the Netherlands 1477-1559(Oxford, 2007). Comprehensive and ambitious survey and comparison of warfare and state formation in England and the Netherlands in the sixteenth century.

Hardt, Michael, and Antonio Negri, Multitude: War and Democracy in the Age of Empire (London: Penguin, 2004)

Krebs, Ronald, Fighting for Rights: Military Service and the Politics of Citizenship (Ithaca, NY, 2006: Cornell)

Leonhard, John, ‘Nation-states and wars’, T. Baycroft and Mark Hewitson (eds.), What is a Nation? Europe 1789-1914 (Oxford UP, 2006), pp.231-54

Lynn, John, ‘Recalculating French Army Growth during the Grand Siècle 1610-1715’, French Historical Studies, 18 (1994), 881-906.

Meumann, Markus, and Andrea Pühringer, The Military in the Early Modern World: A Comparative Approach (Münster: Lit, 2019)

Monahan, W. Gregory, Let God Arise: The War and Rebellion of the Camisards (Oxford: OUP, 2014)

Murphy, Orville T., Charles Gravier, Comte de Vergennes: French Diplomacy in the Age of Revolution, 1719-1787 (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1982)

Roberts, Michael. The Military Revolution, 1560-1660: An Inaugural Lecture Delivered Before the Queen's University of Belfast (Belfast: Marjory Boyd, 1956).

Sabaté, O., ‘Does military pressure boost fiscal capacity? Evidence from late-modern military revolutions in Europe and North America’, European Review of Economic History, 20 (2016), 275-98

Sandberg, Brian, War and Conflict in the Early Modern World, 1500-1700. War and Conflict Through the Ages (Cambridge, UK, Malden, MA: Polity, 2016)

Scales, Len, and Oliver Zimmer, eds. Power and the Nation in European History (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005)

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Schilling, Heinz, Konfessionalisierung und Staatsinteressen. Internationale Beziehungen 1559-1660(Paderborn: Schöningh, 2007)

Tallett, Frank, War and Society in Early Modern Europe, 1495-1715 (London, New York: Routledge, 1992)

Tallett, Frank, and D.J.B. Trim (eds.) European Warfare, 1350-1750 (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2010)

Trim, David J. B., ed. Amphibious Warfare 1000 - 1700: Commerce, State Formation and European Expansion. History of warfare 34 (Leiden: Brill, 2006)

Wimmer, Andreas, Waves of War: Nationalism, State-Formation and Ethnic Exclusion in the Modern World (Cambridge, 2013)

SECTION B: AGENTS AND ACTORS

B1 Contractors, Enterprisers, and Entrepreneurs Baker, Norman, Government and Contractors: The Treasury and War Supplies, 1775-83 (London: Athlone, 1971)

Breedvelt-van Veen, F., Louis de Geer, 1587-1652 (Amsterdam, 1935).

Beerbühl, Margrit Schulte, The forgotten majority: German merchants in London, naturalization and global trade, 1660-1815 (Oxford, 2015)

Bolzern, Rudolf, Spanien, Mailand und die katholische Eigenossenschaft: Militärische, wirtschaftliche und politische Beziehungen zur Zeit des Gesandten Alfonso Casati (1594-1621) (Lucerne, 1982)

Bonoldi, Andrea/Markus A. Denzel/Andrea Leonardi/Cinzia Lorandini (eds.), Merchants in Times of Crises (16th to mid-19th Century) (Stuttgart, 2015: Franz Steiner)

Boyajian, J., Portuguese bankers at the court of Spain, 1626-1650 (New Brunswick, NJ., 1983: Rutgers UP)

Brandon, Pepijn, ‘Finding solid ground for soldiers’ payment: ‘military soliciting’ as brokerage practice in the Dutch Republic (c. 1600-1795)’, in S. Conway and R. Torres Sanchez (eds.), The spending of states: military expenditure during the long eighteenth century: patterns, organisation and consequences, 1650-1815 (Saarbrucken: VDM Verlag Dr Muller, 2001), pp. 51-82

Brandon, Pepijn, ‘“The whole art of war is reduced to money”: remittances, short-term credit and financial intermediation in Anglo-Dutch military finance, 1688-1713’, Financial History Review, 25 (2018), 19-41

Claeys, Thierry, Dictionnaire biographique des financiers en France au XVIIIe siècle (2 vols., Paris: SPM, 2009)

Engström, Nils-Göran, Johan Adler Salvius – Krigsbankir och fredsfämjare (Stockholm, 1998)

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Cools, Hans/Marika Keblusek/Badeloch Noldus (eds.), Your humble servant. Agents in early modern Europe (Hilversum, 2006)

Cope, S.R., Walter Boyd, a merchant banker in the age of Napoleon (Gloucester, 1983)

Dover, Paul M. (ed.), Secretaries and Statecraft in the Early Modern World (Edinburgh, 2017)

Edwards, P., Dealing in death: the arms trade and the British Civil Wars, 1638-52 (Stroud, 2000). Shows the dependence on European military resources (arms) in particular on the Dutch Republic and the ineffectiveness of the political resistance in Britain and the Republic against the Dutch supply of arms.

Engström, Nils-Göran, Johan Adler Salvius – Krigsbankir och fredsfämjare (Stockholm, 1998)

Ernstberger, A., Hans de Witte, Finanzmann Wallensteins (Wiesbaden, 1954).

Feaver, Peter D., Armed Servants: Agency, Oversight and Civil-Military Relations (Cambridge, MA: Harvard, 2003) [on the modern US]

Glete, Jan, Warfare at sea, 1500-1650: maritime conflicts and the transformation of Europe (London/New York, 2000). Rulers, ministers as well as military leaders as entrepreneurs/innovators to centralise flow of military resources; p. 72 refers to the difficulty of analysing networks of private military entrepreneurs, such as shipbuilders for the lack of well-documented archive and negotiation through informal dialogue.

Greyerz, Kaspar von, André Holenstein, and Andreas Würgler (eds.), Soldgeschäfte, Klientelismus, Korruption in der Frühen Neuzeit. Zum Soldunternehmertum der Familie Zurlauben im schweizerischen und europäischen Kontext. Herrschaft und soziale Systeme in der Frühen Neuzeit 25 (Göttingen: V&R, 2018)

Guy, Alan, J., Oeconomy and Discipline: Administration in the British Army, 1714-63 (Manchester, 1985)

Guy, Alan J., ‘Regimental agency in the British standing army, 1715-1763: A study of Georgian military administration’, Bulletin of the John Rylands Library, 52 (1980), 423-53; 53 (1980-1), 31-57

Hattendorf, John B./Augustus J. Veenendahl Jr./ Rolof van Hövell tot Westerflier (eds.), Marlborough: Soldier and Diplomat (Rotterdam, 2012: Karwansaraj)

Holenstein, André /Georg von Erlach/Sarah Rindlisbacher (eds.), Im Auge des Hurrikans. Eidgenössische Machteliten und der Dreissigjährige Krieg (Baden, 2015).

Engels, Marie-Christine, Merchants, Interlopers, Seamen and Corsairs: The ‘Flemish’ Community in Livorno and Genoa (1615-1635) (Hilversum: Verloren, 1997)

Gelder, Maartje van, Trading Places: The Netherlands Merchants in Early Modern Venice (Leiden: Brill, 2009)

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Keblusek, Marika; Noldus, Badeloch, Double Agents. Cultural and Political Brokerage in Early Modern Europe (Leiden: Brill, 2011)

Knight, Roger, ‘Politics and trust in victualling the Royal Navy, 1793-1815’, Mariner’s Mirror, 94 (2008), 133-49

Körbl, Hansdieter, Die Hofkammer und ihr ungetreuer Präsident. Eine Finanzbehörde zur Zeit Leopolds I. (Vienna, 2009: Böhlau)

Legutke, Daniel, Diplomatie als soziale Institution: brandenburgische, sächsische und kaiserliche Gesandte in Den Haag, 1648-1720 (Münster, 2010).

Lemercier-Quelquejay, Chantel, ‘Un condottiere lithuanien du XVIe siecle le prince Dimitrij Višneveckij et l’origine de la Seč Zaporogue d'apres les archives ottomanes’, Cahiers du monde russe et sovietique, 10 (1969), 258-79.

Lindblad, J. Thomas, ‘Louis de Geer (1587-1652). Dutch entrepreneur and the father of Swedish industry’, in Noordegraaf Lesger (ed.), Entrepreneurs and Entrepreneurship in Early Modern Times. Merchants and Industrialists within the Orbit of the Dutch Staple Market (The Hague: Stichting Hollandes Historische Reeks, 1995), pp.77-84

Lindström, Peter and Svante Norrhem, Flattering alliances: Scandinavia, Diplomacy, and the Austrian-French Balance of Power, 1648-1740 (Lund: Nordic Academic Press, 2013).

Little, H.M., ‘The Treasury, the Commissariat and the Army, 1756-63’, (UCL PhD, 1981)

Meinhardt, Matthias, and Markus Meumann, Die Kapitalisierung des Krieges: Kriegsunternehmer in Spätmittelalter und Früher Neuzeit. Herrschaft und soziale Systeme in der frühen Neuzeit 13 (Münster: Lit, 2019)

Maréchaux, Benoit, ‘Business organisation in the Mediterranean Sea: Genoese galley entrepreneurs in the service of the Spanish empire (late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries’, Business History, 10 (2020), 1-32

Mesa Gallego, Eduardo de, ‘Great Barry: Swordsman, military theorist, entrepreneur and servitor of the Spanish monarchy’, The Irish Sword, 30 (2015), 151-6

Mondot, Jean, Jean-Marie Valentin, Jürgen Voss (eds.), Allemands en France, Français en Allemagne, 1715-1789 (Jan Thorbecke, 1992)

Mortimer, Geoff, Wallenstein. The enigma of the Thirty Years War (Basingstoke, 2010)

Noldus, Badeloch, ‘Dealings in politics and art: Agent between Amsterdam, Stockholm and Copenhagen’, Scandinavian Journal of History, 28 (2003), 215-25

North, Michael, ‘Das Bild des Kaufmanns’, in M. Schwarze (ed.), Der neue Mensch: Perspektiven der Renaissance (Regensburg, 2000), pp.233-57.

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Pizzoni, Giada, British Catholic Merchants in the Commercial Age, 1670-1714 (Woodbridge, 2020)

Rodríguez Villa, Antonio, Ambrosio Spinola, primar marques de los Balbases (Madrid: Fortanet, 1905)

Rogger, Philippe/Nadir Weber (eds.), Beobachten, Vernetzen, Verhandeln/Observer, connecter, négocier: Diplomatische Akteure und politische Kulturen in der frühneuzeitlichen Eidgenossenschaft/Acteurs diplomatiques et cultures politiques dans le Corps helvétique, XVIIe et XVIIIe siècles (Basel, 2018)

Rothman, E. Natalie, Brokering Empire: Trans-imperial Subjects between Venice and Istanbul (Ithaca NY: Cornell, 2011)

Rowlands, Guy, Dangerous and Dishonest Men: The International Bankers of Louis XIV’s France(Basingstoke, 2014)

Sanz Ayán, Carmen, Un banquero en el siglo de oro: Octavio Centrui ón, el financiero de los Austrias(Madrid, 2015: La esfera de los libros) [on Octavio Centurión 1578-1653]

Schmölz-Häberlein, Michaela, ‘Beziehungen und Konflikte zwischen jüdischen Handelsgesellschaften und obrigkeitlichen Akteuren in Franken um 1700’, in Sandra Richter und Guillaume Garner (eds.), ‚Eigennutz‘ und ‚gute Ordnung‘: Ökonomisierungen der Welt im 17. Jahrhundert (Wiesbaden: Hassarowitz, 2016), pp.113-32

Schnee, Heinrich, Die Hoffinanz und der modern Staat: Geschichte und System der Hoffaktoren an deutschen Fürstenhofen im Zeitalter des Absolutismus (5 vols., Berlin, 1953-65).

Schulte, R., ‘Rüstung, Zins und Frömmigkeit. Niederländische Calvinisten als Finanziers des Dreißigjährigen Krieges’, Bohemia, 35 (1994), 45-62

Steefel, Lawrence D., ‘The Rothschilds and the Austrian loan of 1865’, JMH, 8 (1935), 27-40

Thiele, Andrea, ‘The prince as military entrepreneur? Why smaller Saxon territories sent “Holländische Regimenter” (Dutch Regiments) to the Dutch Republic’, in J. Fynn-Paul (ed.), War, entrepreneurs, and the state in Europe and the Mediterranean, 1300-1800 (Leiden, 2014), 170-92

Thiessen, Hillard von, and Christian Windler (eds.), Akteure der Außenbeziehungen: Netzwerke und Interkulturalität im historischen Wandel (Cologne: Böhlau, 2010)

Vogel, Hans/Marjan Smits (eds.), ‘Een oorlogsman van dezen tijd en beminnaar der sexe.’ De autobiografie van Casimir graaf von Schlippenbach (1682-1755) (Amsterdam, 2007)

Zunckel, Julia, Rüstungsgeschäfte im Dreißigjährigen Krieg. Unternehmer, Kräfte, Militärgüter und Marktstrategien im Handel zwischen Genua, Amsterdam und Hamburg (Berlin: Duncker und Humblot, 1997). [International commercial networks of resource mobilisation in Europe during the Thirty Year’s War, focus on Genoa, Amsterdam and Hamburg as the three most important centres and their interconnections but from the state-perspective of Genoa. Network analysis of Amsterdam merchant Guillelmo Bartolotti]

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B2 Patronage (see also www.ofxordbibliographies.com “Nobility” ‘Patronage Studies’

Asch, R.G. and A.M. Birke eds., Princes, patronage and the nobility. The court and the beginning of the modern age, c. 1450-1650 (Oxford 1991).

Droste, Heiko, ‘Patronage in der Frühen Neuzeit: Institutionen und Kulturform’, Zeitschrift für Historische Forschung, 30 (2003), 555-90

Groebner, Valentin, Liquid assets, dangerous gifts. Presents and politics at the end of the middle ages(Philadelphia, 2002).

Haddad, Élie, ‘Noble Clientèles in France in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries: A Historiographical Approach’, French History 20 (2006), pp. 75–109. ‘Elucidates the terminological problems in the patronage debate, and sketches different methodological approaches in current historiography. Best introduction to older or classic studies by Mousnier, Ranum, Kettering, Greengrasss, etc.’

Kettering, Sharon, Patrons, Brokers, and Clients in Seventeenth-Century France (New York, 1986). ‘The late Sharon Kettering has been heralded as the “queen of patronage studies.” This volume makes a strong case for studying patronage as characteristic of an incomplete (and not even modern) bureaucracy, focusing on the importance of brokers and of personal relations between elites.’

Kettering, Sharon, Patronage in Sixteenth- and Seventeenth-Century France (Aldershot, UK, 2002). Groups earlier articles by the author, with an important updated bibliographical essay.

Mączak, Antoni, (ed.), Klientelsysteme im Europa der Frühen Neuzeit (Munich, 1988). ‘Authoritative volume on the resemblances and differences between clientelism in early modern Europe, including the Holy Roman Empire and eastern, central, and southern Europe (but omitting Scandinavia and Hungary).’

MacHardy, K.J., War, religion and court patronage in Habsburg Austria. The social and cultural dimensions of political interactions, 1521-1622 (Hampshire 2003).

Potter, M., Corps and Clienteles: Public Finance and Political Change in France, 1688-1715 (Aldershot, 2003)

Reinhard, Wolfgang, Freunde und Kreaturen, “Verflechtung” als Konzept zur Erforschung historischer Führungsgruppen, Römische Oligarchie um 1600 (Munich, 1979). ‘Seminal study of the clienteles of the pope and the magnate families of Rome. More a theoretical argument for using mathematical data and network analysis to study clientelism than an actual description of the Roman

oligarchy.’

B3 Corruption Engels, Jens Ivo, Die Geschichte der Korruption von der Frühen Neuzeit bis ins 20. Jahrhundert(Frankfurt/M.: Fischer, 2014)

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Felix, Joel, and Anne Dubet (eds.), The War within: Private Interests and the Fiscal State in Early Modern Europe (Basingstoke, 2018)

Graham, Aaron, Corruption, Party and Government in Britain, 1702-13 (OUP, 2015)

Graham, Aaron, ‘Auditing Leviathan: Corruption and state formation in early eighteenth-century Britain’, English Historical Review, 128 (2013), 806-38

Graham, Aaron, ‘Corruption and contractors in the North Atlantic, 1754-63’, English Historical Review, 133 (2018), 1093-1119

Grüne, Niels, and Tom Tölle, ‘Corruption in the Ancien Regime: Systems-theoretical considerations on normative plurality’, Journal of Modern European History, 11 (2013), 31-51

Grüne, Niels/Simona Slanicka (eds.), Korruption. Historische Annäherungen an eine Grundfigur politischer Kommunikation (Göttingen, 2010)

Johnston, Michael, ‘The search for definitions: the vitality of politics and the issue of corruption’,

International Social Science Journal, 149 (1996), 321-35.

Kerkhoff, Toon, Ronald Kroeze, and Pieter Wagenaar, ‘Corruption and the rise of modern political in the eighteenth and nineteenth century. A comparison between France, the Netherlands, German and England’, Journal of Modern European History, 11 (2013), 19-30.

Kozmanová, Irena, ‘Anti-corruption discourse as a feature of political system change: The case of the Dutch Republic 1650-1651’, Littera Scripta, 1 (2016),

Kroeze, Ronald et al (eds.), A history of anti-corruption from antiquity until the modern era (Oxford, 2018)

Lindemann, Mary, ‘Dirty politics or “Harmonie”? Defining corruption in early modern Amsterdam and Hamburg’, Journal of Social History, 45 (2012), 582-604.

Special Issue Corruptie in de Nederlanden, 1400-1800 in: Tijdschrift voor Sociale en Economische Geschiedenis 2:4 (2005).

B4 Networks (see also www.oxfordbibliographies.com “Merchants’ Networks)

Antunes, Catia/Amelia Polónia (eds.), Beyond Empires: Global, Self-Organizing Cross-Imperial Networks, 1500-1800 (Leiden, 2016)

Crailsheim, Eberhard, The Spanish Connection: French and Flemish Merchant Networks in Seville (1570-1650) (Cologne, 2016)

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Diani, Mario/D. McAdam (eds.), Social Movements and Networks: Relational Approaches to Collective Action (Oxford, 2003)

Düring, Marten, and Ulrich Eumann, ‘Historische Netzwerkforschung: Ein neuer Ansatz in den Geschichtswissenschaften’, Geschichte und Gesellschaft, 39 (2013), 369-90

Emirbayer, Mustafa/Jeffrey Goodwin, ‘Network analysis, culture and the problem of agency’, AmericanJournal of Sociology, 99 (1994), 1141-54

Freeman, Linton C., ‘Visualizing social networks’, Journal of Social Structure, 1 (2000), 47-54

Gould, Roger V., ‘Collective action and network structure’, American Sociological Review, 58 (1993), 182-96

Gould, Roger V./Roberto M. Fernandez, ‘Structures of mediation: A formal approach to brokerage in transaction networks’, Sociological Methodology, 19 (1989), 89-126

Granovetter, Mark, ‘The strength of weak ties: A network theory revisited’, Sociological Theory, 1 (1983), 201-33

Israel, Jonathan I., Diasporas within a Diaspora: Jews, Crypto-Jews and the World of Maritime Empires, 1540-1740 (Leiden: Brill, 2002)

Larminie, Vivienne (ed.), Huguenot Networks 1560-1780: The Interactions and Impact of a Protestant Minority in Europe (New York, 2017)

Latour, B., ‘On actor-network theory. A few clarifications plus more than a few complications’, Soziale Welt, 47 (1996), 369-81

Latour, B., Reassembling the social. An introduction to actor-network theory (Oxford, 2005).

Lemercier, Claire, ‘Formal Network Methods in History: Why and how?’, in Georg Fertig (ed.), Social Networks, Political Institutions, and Rural Societies (Turnhout: Brepols, 2015), pp.281-304.

Paul McLean, The Art of the Network: Strategic Interaction and Patronage in Renaissance Florence (Durham, NC, 2007)

Sánchez, Manuel Herrero and Klemens Kaps eds., Networks in the Altantic and the Mediterranean, 1550-1800. Connectors of commercial maritime systems (London 2017).

Scott, John, Social Network Analysis: A Handbook (2nd ed., Newbury Park, CA: Sage, 2000)

Subrahmanyam, Sanja (ed.), Merchant Networks in the Early Modern World (Aldershot: Variorum, 1996)

Wellman, Barry, ‘Network analysis: some basic principles’, Sociological Theory, 1 (1983), 155-200

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B5 Trust Frevert, Ute (eds.), Vertrauen: Historische Annäherungen (Göttingen, 2003)

f*ckuyama, Francis, Trust: The Origins of Political Order from Prehuman Times to the French Revolution (New York: Ferrar, Straus and Giroux, 2011)

Knight, Roger, ‘Politics and trust in victualling the Royal Navy, 1793-1815’, Mariner’s Mirror, 94 (2008), 133-49

Kontler, László/Somos, Mark (eds.), Trust and Happiness in the History of European Political Thought(Leiden, 2007)

Lamikiz, Xabier, Trade and Trust in the eighteenth-century Atlantic World: Spanish Merchants and their Overseas Networks (Woodbridge: Boydell, 2010)

Luhmann, Niklas, Vertrauen: Ein Mechanismus der Reduktion sozialer Komplexität (Frankfurt, 2000)

Schröder, Peter, Trust in Early Modern Political Thought, 1598-1713 (Cambridge, 2017)

Tilly, Richard (ed.), Vertrauen/Trust (Berlin: Akademie Verlag, 2005)

SECTION C: FISCAL-MILITARY ASSETS

C1. Personnel C1.1 Mercenaries – Definition/Debates Avant, Deborah D., ‘From mercenary to citizen armies: explaining change in the practice of war’, International Organization, 54 no.1 (2000), 41-72

Barkawi, Tarak, ‘State and armed force in international context’, in Alejandro Colás/Bryan Mabee (eds.), Mercenaries, pirates, bandits and empire (London, 2010), pp.33-54

Ettinger, Aaron, ‘The mercenary moniker: Condemnations, contradictions and the problem of definition’, Security Dialogue, 45, no.2 (2014), 174-91

Grundy, Kenneth W., ‘On Machiavelli and the mercenaries’, Journal of Modern African Studies, 6 (1968), 295-310

Guttry, Andreas de/Francesca Capone/Christophe Paulussen (eds.), Foreign Fighters under International Law and Beyond (The Hague, 2016)

Hampson, Françoise, ‘Mercenaries: Diagnosis before proscription’, Netherlands Yearbook of International Law, 22 no.2 (1991), 3-38

Kiernan, V.G., ‘Foreign mercenaries and absolute monarchy’, Past and Present, 11 (1957), 66-86

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Krahmann, Elke, ‘From “Mercenaries” to “Private Security Contractors”: The (Re)Construction of Armed Security Providers in International Legal Discourses’, Millennium: Journal of International Studies, 40, no. 2 (2012), 343–63.

Linnarsson, Magnus, ‘Unfaithful and expensive – but absolutely necessary: Perceptions of mercenaries in Swedish war policy, 1621-1636’, Revue d’histoire nordique, 18 (2014), 51-73.

Liu, Hin-Yan/Christopher Kinsey, ‘Challenging the strength of the antimercenary norm’, Journal of Global Security Studies, 3 (2018), 93-110

Lucassen, Jan, ‘The Other Proletarians: Seasonal Labourers, Mercenaries and Miners’, International Review of Social History, 39, no. S2 (1994),

Maaß, Rainald, Der Söldner und seine kriegsvölkerrechtliche Rechtsstellung als Kombattant und Kriegsgefangener (Bockum: UVB, 1990)

Peled, Alon, A Question of Loyalty: Military Manpower Policy in Multiethnic States (Ithaca, 1998: Cornell)

Percy, Sarah V., Mercenaries: The History of a Norm in International Relations (Oxford, 2007)

Riemann, Malte, ‘“As Old as War Itself”? Historicizing the Universal Mercenary’, Journal of GlobalSecurity Studies, 6 (1) (2021),

Scates, Bruce, ‘The price of war: labour historians confront military history’, Labour History, 84 (2003).

Sikora, Michael, ‘Söldner: Historische Annäherung an einen Kriegertypus’, Geschichte und Gesellschaft,29 (2003), 210-38.

Spencer, Alexander, Romantic Narratives in International Politics: Pirates, Rebels and Mercenaries(Manchester, 2016: MUP)

Taulbee, James L., ‘Myths, Mercenaries and Contemporary International Law’, California Western International Law Journal, 15 (1985), 339–63.

C1.2 Mercenaries: As migration Ailes, Mary E., Military Migration and State Formation. The British Military Community in Seventeenth-Century Sweden (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2002)

Asche, M. et al (eds.), Krieg, Militär und Migration in der Frühen Neuzeit (Herrschaft und soziale System in der Frühen Neuzeit Bd.9) (Berlin, 2008)

Bosma, Ulbe, ‘European colonial soldiers in the nineteenth century: Their role in white global migration and patterns of colonial settlement’, Journal of Global History, 4 (2009), 317-36

Casparis, John, ‘The Swiss mercenary system: Labor emigration from the semi-periphery’, Review(Fernand Braudel Centre), 5 no.4 (1982), 593-642

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25

Höchner, Marc, ‘Das Söldnerwesen in der Zentralschweiz 1500-1800 als Migrationsbewegung’, Der Geschichtsfreund, 167 (2014), 11-29

Klein, Alex/Jelle van Lottum, ‘The determinants of international migration in early modern Europe: Evidence from the maritime sector, c.1700-1800’, Social Science History, 44 (2020), 143-67

Lottum, Jelle van, Across the North Sea: The Influence of the Dutch Republic on International Labour Migration, c.1550-1850 (Amsterdam, 2007)

Lottum, Jelle van, ‘Labour migration and economic performance: London and the Randstad, c.1600-1800’, Economic History Review, 64 (2011), 531-70

Lucassen, Jan and Leo Lucassen, ‘The mobility transition revisited: what the case of Europe can offer to global history’, Journal of Global History 4:3 (2009), 347-77.

Lyons, Mary Ann (ed.), Irish Migrants in Europe after Kinsale 1602-1820 (Dublin, 2003)

Rass, Christoph (ed.) Militärische Migration vom Altertum bis zur Gegenwart (Paderborn, 2016)

O’Reilly, William, Selling Souls: Trafficking German Migrants: Europe and America, 1648-1780(forthcoming)

O’Reilly, William, ‘Migration, recruitment and the law: Europe responds to the Atlantic world’, in Horst Pietschmann (ed.), Atlantic History, History of the Atlantic System 1580-1830 (Göttingen, 2002: Vandenhoek und Rupprecht), pp.119-37.

Rodríguez Hernández, Antonio José, “La presencia militar irlandesa en el ejército de Extremadura (1640-

1668)” in Igor Pérez Tostado y Enrique García Hernán (Eds.), Irlanda y el Atlántico Ibérico. Movilidad,

participación e intercambio cultural (1580-1823)/ Ireland and the iberian Atlantic. Mobility, involvement

and Cross-Cultural Exchange (1580-1823) (Valencia, 2010) pp. 127-153.

Schelbert, Leo, ‘Die Wanderung der Schweizer. Ein historischer Überblick’, Saeculum. Jahrbuch für Universalgeschichte, 18 (1967), 403-30

Sonkajärvi, Hanna, ‘Mobility between risk and opportunity. The military profession in the eighteenth century’, Mélanges de l’École française de Rome – Italie et Méditerranné modernes et contemporaines 123.1 (2011) 49-56.

Valko, Jennifer M., ‘Transnational mercenarie as agents of Argentine national construction in Moritz Alemann’s immigration propaganda (1874-1908)’, German Studies Review, 40 (2017), 41-60

C1.3 Foreign Soldiers [see also under Section Airelli, Nir, From Byron to Bin Laden: A History of Foreign War Volunteers (Cambridge, MA, 2018)

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26

Airelli, Nir/Bruce Collins (eds.), Transnational soldiers: Foreign military enlistment in the modern era(Basingstoke, 2014)

Albach, Robert Murray Bakker, ‘Die Schweizer Regimenter in holländischen Diensten 1693-1797’, Jahrbuch Schweizerische Gesellschaft für Familienforschung, (1989), 57-104

Amersfoort, H., Koning en Kanton: de Nederlandse staat en het einde van de Zwitserse krijgsdienst hier te lande 1814-1829 ('s-Gravenhage 1988).

Andler, Rudolf, ‘Die württembergischen Regimenter in Griechenland, 1687-89’, Württembergische Vierteljahreshefte für Landesgeschichte, NF 31 (1922-24), 217-79

Asche, Matthias/Michael Herrmann/Ulrike Ludwig/Anton Schindling (eds.), Krieg, Militär und Migration in der Frühen Neuzeit (Berlin, 2008)

Atwood, Rodney, The Hessians: Mercenaries from Hessen-Kassel in the American Revolution (Cambridge: CUP, 1980)

Bäckström, Olli, ‘The German military entrepreneur Ernst von Mansfeld and his conduct of asymmetrical warfare’ (University of Helsinki, 2011)

Bagi, Zoltán, ‘Das deutsche Fußvolk in den ungarischen Feldzügen zur Zeit des langen Türkenkrieges.‘ in István Fazekas/Krisztián Csaplár/Degovics (eds.), Geteilt - Vereinigt: Beiträge zur Geschichte des Königreichs Ungarn in der Frühneuzeit (16. - 18. Jahrhundert) (Berlin, 2011), pp.130–56.

Bagi, Zoltán, ‚Westeuropäische Reitertruppen auf ungarischen Kriegsschauplätzen: Truppengattungen, Organisation und Rekrutierung in der Zeit des langen Türkenkriegs‘, Militär und Gesellschaft in der frühen Neuzeit, 19 (2015), 47-70

Bagi, Zoltán, ‘The life of soldiers during the Long Turkish War (1593-1606), Hungarian Historical Review, 4 (2015), 384-417.

Bayley, C.C., Mercenaries for the Crimea: The German, Swiss and Italian legions in British service 1854-1856 (Montreal: McGill, 1977)

Bianchi, Paola/Davide Maffi and Enrico Stumpo (eds.), Italiani al servizio straniero in età moderna. Annali di storia militare europea (Milan, 2008)

Bodin, Jerome, Les Suisses au service de la France, de Louis XI a la Legion étrangère (Paris: Albin Michel, 1988)

Bossenbroek, Marin, Volk voor Indië. De werving van Europese militairen voor de Nederlandse koloniale dienst 1814-1909 (Amsterdam, 1992)

Bossenbroek, Martin, ‘The Living Tools of Empire: The Recruitment of European Soldiers for the Dutch Colonial Army, 1814–1909’, Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History 23/1 (1995), 26–53.

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27

Bragado Echevarria, Javier, ‘Los regimientos suizos al servicio de España en el siglo XVIII (1700-1755): Guerra, diplomacia y sociedad militar’ (PhD Thesis, University of Granada, 2017).

Braun, Christine, Die Entstehung des Mythos vom Soldatenhandel 1776-1813: Europäische Öffentlichkeit und der ‘Hessische Soldatenverkauf’ nach Amerika am Ende des 18. Jahrhunderts (Quellen Und Forschungen Zur Hessischen Geschichte 178. Darmstadt: Selbstverlag der Hessischen Historischen Kommission Darmstadt und der Historischen Kommission für Hessen, 2018).

Brown, M., Adventuring through Spanish colonies: Simon Bolivar, foreign mercenaries and the birth of new nations (Liverpool, 2006)

Bueno, Jose Maria, Italiani al servizio di Spagna 1700/1820 (Milan: Editrice Italiano Militare, 1989)

Bundi, Martin, Bündner Kriegsdienste in Holland um 1700 (Calven Verlag Chur 1972).

Burmester, Henry C., ‘The recruitment and use of mercenaries in armed conflicts’, American Journal of International Law, 72 (1978), 37-56

Burschel, Peter. Söldner im Nordwestdeutschland des 16. und 17. Jahrhunderts: Sozialgeschichtliche Studien. Veröffentlichungen des Max-Planck-Instituts für Geschichte 113. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1994.

Buß, Regina, Der Kombattentenstatus: Die kriegsrechtliche Entstehung eines Rechtsbegriffs und seine Ausgestaltung in Verträgen des 19. und 20. Jahrhunderts (Bochum: UVB, 1992)

Caferro, William, Mercenary Companies and the Decline of Siena (Baltimore, 1998)

Caferro, William, John Hawkwood: An English Mercenary in Fourteenth-Century Italy (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins UP).

Calleja Leal, Guillermo (ed.), Presencia suiza en la milicia española (Revista Internacional de Historia Militar 95) (Madrid, 2017).

Canstein, Benno Frhr.v., Der Waldeckisch-Englische Subsidienvertrag von 1776: Zustandekommen, Ausgestaltung und Erfüllung (Arolsen: Waldeckischer Geschichtsverein, 1989)

Clodfelter, Micheal. Warfare and Armed Conflicts: A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1500 - 2000. 2. ed. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2002.

Colas, A., and B. Mabee (eds.), Mercenaries, Pirates, Bandits and Empires (London, Hurst, 2010)

Conway, Stephen, Britannia’s Auxiliaries: Continental Europeans and the British Empire, 1740-1800 (Oxford, 2017)

Conway, Stephen, ‘Entrepreneurs and the recruitment of the British army in the War of American Independence, 1775-1783’, in Jeff Fynn-Paul (ed.), War, entrepreneurs and the state in Europe and the Mediterranean 1300-1800 (Leiden, 2014), pp.111-30

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Conway, Stephen, ‘Continental European soldiers in British imperial service c.1756-1792’, English Historical Review, 129 (2014), 79-106

Conway, Stephen, ‘Scots, Britons and Europeans: Scottish military service c.1739-1783’, Historical Research, 82 (2009), 114-30

Corcoran, Donal, The Irish Brigade in the Pope’s Army 1860: Faith, Fatherland and Fighting (Dublin, 2018)

Dempsey, Guy C., Napoleon’s Mercenaries: Foreign Units in the French Army under the Consulate and Empire 1799 to 1814 (London: Greenhill, 2002)

duch*esne, Albert, Au service de Maximilien et de Charlotte. L’expédition des volontaires belges au Mexique, 1864-1867, 2 vol. (Brussels, 1967-8).

duch*esne, Albert, ‘Corps de troupes liégeois au service de la France de Louis XIII à Louis XVI’, in: Fastes militaires du Pays de Liège. Catalogue d’exposition, 24 octobre – 29 novembre 1970 (Liege, 1970).

duch*esne, Albert, ‘Les corps de troupe Wallons et Liégeois au service du Roi de France (XVIIe et XVIIIe siècles)’, Revue belge d’histoire militaire, 16, (1965), 12-23.

Duffy, Christopher, The Best of Enemies: Germans against Jacobites, 1746 (London: Bitter Books, 2013)

Duffy, Christopher, ‘Hidden sympathies: The Hessians in Scotland 1746’, in Paul Monod/Murray Pittock/Daniel Szechi (eds.), Loyalty and Identity: The Jacobites at Home and Abroad (Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2010), pp.120-31

Dumont, Serge, Les mercenaires (Berchem: Editions EPO, 1987)

Echevarría, Javier Bragado, Los Regimientos Suizos al service de España en el siglo XVIII (1700-1755): Guerra, diplomacia y sociedad militar (Madrid: Ministerio de Defensa, 2019)

Eisentraut, G., ‘Der Briefwechsel zwischen dem Landgrafen Wilhelm VIII. von Hessen und seinem Generaladjutanten Geneeralmajor Freiherr von Fürstenberg in den Jahren 1756/57’, Zeitschrift des Vereins für hessische Geschichte und Landeskunde, 40 (NF30) (1907), 72-138

Eppenstein, Lisa, ‘Beiträge zur Geschichte des auswärtigen Kriegsdienstes der Deutschen in der zweiten Hälfte des 16. Jahrhunderts’, Forschungen zur Brandenburg-Preussischen Geschichte, 32 (1920), 283-367

Erismann, Oskar, ‘Peter Stuppa: Freifähnlein und ständige Linienregimenter der Schweizer in französischen Dienst’, Blätter für Bernische Geschichte Kunst und Altertumskunde, 9 (1913), 157-72

Eyer, Robert-Peter, Die Schweizer Regimenter in Neapel im 18. Jahrhundert (1734-1789) (Bern, 2009)

Fancy, Hussein Anwar, The Mercenary Mediterranean: Sovereignty, Religion, and Violence in the Medieval Crown of Aragon (Chicago: U. of Chicago P., 2016)

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29

Förster, Stig et al (eds.), Rückkehr der Condottieri? Krieg und Militär zwischen staatichem Monopol und Privatiserung: Von der Antike bis zur Gegenwart (Paderborn, 2010)

Forsyth, David, and Wendy Ugolini (eds.), A Global Force: War, Identities and Scotland's Diaspora(Edinburgh UP, 2017)

Fowler, Kenneth, Medieval Mercenaries vol.1 The Great Companies (Oxford, 2001: Blackwell)

France, J. (ed.), Mercenaries and Paid Men: The Mercenary Identity in the Middle Ages (Leiden, 2008: Brill)

Friedrich, Werner, Die völkerrechtliche Stellung von Söldnertruppen im Kriege (Bad Honnef: Bock und Herchen, 1978)

Fuhrer, Hans Rudolf, and Robert Peter Eyer (eds.), Schweizer in ‘fremden Diensten’: Verherrlicht und verurteilt (Zurich, 2006)

Furrer, Norbert et al (eds.), Gente ferocissima: Mercenariat et société en Suisse (XVe-XIXe siècle) (Zürich: Chronos, 1997)

Gallagher, John G., Napoleon’s Irish Legion (Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1993)

García Hernán, Enrique (ed.), Presencia germánica en la milicia española (Madrid: Ministerio de Defensa 2015)

Garland, John L., ‘Irish officers in the Bavarian service in the War of Spanish Succession’, Irish Sword, 14 (1981), 240-55.

Genet-Rouffiac, Nathalie, Le grand exil: Les Jacobites en France, 1688-1715 (Vincennes: SHD, 2007)

Genet-Rouffiac, Nathalie, ‘The Irish regiments and the French army: A way to integration’, in Paul Monod/Murray Pittock/Daniel Szechi (eds.), Loyalty and Identity: The Jacobites at Home and Abroad(Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2010), pp.206-28

Genet-Rouffiac, Nathalie/David Murphy (eds.), Franco-Irish Military Connections, 1590-1945 (Dublin: Four Courts, 2009).

Gittermann, Alexandra, ‘De la Guerra de Sucesión a la Guerra de la Independencia: soldados germanos en la España del siglo XVII’, in Enrique García Hernán (ed.), Presencia germánica en la milicia española (Madrid, 2015), pp.99-135

Glesener, Thomas, ‘¿Nación flamenca o élite de poder? Los militares "flamencos" en la España de los Borbones,’ in A. Alvarez-Ossorio Alvariño, B. García García (eds.), La Monarquía de las Naciones. Patría, nación y naturaleza en la Monarquía de España (Madrid: Fundación Carlos de Amberes, 2004), pp.701-19

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Glesener, Thomas, ‘La estatalización del reclutamiento de soldados extranjeros en el siglo XVIII », in M. R. García Hurtado (ed.), Soldados de la Ilustración. El ejército en el siglo XVIII (Universidade da Coruña, 2012), 239-263

Glesener, Thomas, ‘La renovación de la tradición: los flamencos y el servicio militar a la Monarquía hispánica a inicios del siglo XVIII,’ in E. Martinez Ruiz, Presencia de flamencos y valones en la milicia española (2018), 97-122

Glozier, Matthew, Scottish Soldiers in France in the Reign of the Sun King: Nursery for Men of Honour(Leiden: Brill, 2004)

Glozier, Matthew, Marshal Schomberg, 1615-1690: The Ablest Soldier of his Age. International Soldiering and the Formation of State Armies in Seventeenth-Century Europe (Brighton: Sussex Academic Press, 2005)

Glozier, Matthew, The Huguenot Soldiers of William of Orange and the Glorious Revolution of 1688: The Lions of Judah (Brighton: Sussex Academic Press, 2002)

Gould, Robert W., Mercenaries of the Napoleonic Wars (Brighton: Spellmount, 1995)

Gräf, Holger Th. /Andrea Hedwig/ Annegret Wenz-Haubfleisch (eds.), Die ‘Hessians’ im Amerikanischen Unabhängigkeitskrieg (1776-1783) (Marburg, 2014: Hist.Kommiss. fur Hessen)

Grainne, Henry, The Irish Military Community in Spanish Flanders 1586-1621 (Dublin, 1992)

Grosjean, Alexia, ‘Scottish-Scandinavian seventeenth-century naval links’, Northern Studies, 32 (1997), 105-23

Grosjean, Alexia/Steve Murdoch, Alexander Leslie and the Scottish Generals of the Thirty Years War 1618-1648 (London: Routledge, 2014)

Gugger, Rudolf, Preussische Werbungen in der Eidgenossenschaft im 18. Jahrhundert (Berlin: Duncker und Humblot, 1997)

Haarmann, A.W., ‘Contemporary observations on the Hesse-Cassell troops sent to North America, 1776-1781’, JSAHR, 54 (1974), 130-4

Handrick, Wolfgang, ‘Der bayerische Löwe im Dienste des österreichischen Adlers. Das kurfürstliche Auxiliärkorps in den Niederlanden 1746-1749’, Militärgeschichtliche Mitteilungen, 50 (1991), 25-60

Hanlon, Greg, The Twilight of a Military Tradition: Italian Aristocrats and European Conflicts 1560-1800(London, 1998).

Harsgor, M., ‘Die Spieße unter der Lilienblume: Deutsche Söldner im Dienste Frankreichs (14.-16.Jh.)’, Tel Aviver Jahrbuch für deutsche Geschichte, 16 (1987), 48-81.

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Harvey, Karen J., ‘The Wild Geese in the service of Habsburg Austria: Captain John Bellew’, The Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland, 118 (1988), 5-12

Hennessy, Maurice, The Wild Geese: The Irish Soldier in Exile (London, 1973)

Hernández, Antonio José Rodriguez, ‘La presencia militar alemana en los ejércitos peninsulares españoles durante la guerra de restauración portuguesa (1659-1668),’ in Liborio Ruiz Molina, José Javier Ruiz Ibáñez, Bernard Vincent (eds.), El Greco y los otros: la contribución de los extranjeros a la monarquía hispánica, 1500-1700 (2015), 269-288

Hitz, Benjamin, Kämpfen um Sold. Eine Alltags- und Sozialgeschichte schweizerischer Söldner in der Frühen Neuzeit (Cologne, 2015: Böhlau)

Hochheimer, Albert, Verraten und Verkauft. Die Geschichte der europäischen Söldner (Stuttgart: Goverts, 1967)

Höchner, Marc, Selbstzeugnisse von Schweizer Söldneroffizieren im 18. Jahrhundert (Göttingen: V&R, 2015)

Hoffman, Georg, ‘Die grossbritainnische Schweizerlegion im Krimkrieg. Werbung und Schicksal’, Zeitschrift für Schweizerische Geschichte, 22 (1942), 573-95

Holenstein, André /Georg von Erlach/Sarah Rindlisbacher (eds.), Im Auge des Hurrikans. Eidgenössische Machteliten und der Dreissigjährige Krieg (Baden, 2015).

Huck, Stephan, Soldaten gegen Nordamerika. Lebenswelten Braunschwieger Subsidientruppen im amerikanischen Unabhängigkeitskrieg (Munich: Oldenbourg, 2011)

Ingrao, Charles, The Hessian Mercenary State: Ideas, Institutions and Reform under Frederick II, 1760-1785 (Cambridge, 1987)

Janin, Hunt, and Ursula Carlson, Mercenaries in Medieval and Renaissance Europe (London, 2013: McFarlan)

Jay, Joseph, Captains of Fortune: Profiles of Six Italian Condottieri (London: Gollancz, 1966)

Jaun, Rudolf, Pierre Streit, Hervé de Weck (eds.), Schweizer Solddienst. Neue Arbeiten, neue Aspekte(Birmensdorf, 2010)

Johnson, Rob, True to their salt: Indigenous Personnel in Western Armed Forces (London: Hurst, 2017)

Killingray, David and David Omissi (eds.), Guardians of empire: the armed forces of the colonial powers c. 1700-1964 (Manchester: Manchester UP, 1999)

Kohlhaas, Wilhelm, Candia: Die Tragödie einer abendländischen Verteidigung und ihr Nachspiel in Morea1645-1714 (Osnabrück, 1978)

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Koller, Christian/Peter Huber, ‘Armut, Arbeit, Abenteuer: Sozialprofil und Motivationsstruktur von Schweizer Söldnern in der Moderne’, Vierteljahrschrift für Sozial- und Wirtschaftsgeschichte, 102 (2015), 30-51

Knesebeck, E. von, Geschichte der chur-hannoverschen Truppen in Gibraltar, Minorca und Ostindien (Hanover, 1845)

Kramer, Daniel Robert. Das Söldnerwesen: Militärisches Unternehmertum in der Genese des internationalen Systems (Wiesbaden: VS, 2010).

Kreem, Juhan, ‘The business of war: Mercenary market and organisation in Reval in the fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries’, Scandianvian Economic History Review, 49 (2001), 26-42

Linden, Benjamin van der, Das Leibregiment der friesischen Statthalter. Kriegsgerichte, Offizierslaufbahnen und militärische Lebenswelten in den Garnisonsstädten Leeuwarden, Groningen und Emden. 1666–1752 (Berlin: Duncker & Humblot 2016).

Linnarsson, Magnus, ‘Unfaithful and expensive – but absolutely necessary: Perceptions of mercenaries in Swedish war policy, 1621-1636’, Revue d’histoire nordique, 18 (2014), 51-73.

Lorette, Jean, Les expeditions militaires belges au Portugal en 1832 et 1833 (Paris-Brussels, 1949).

Malet, David, Foreign Fighters. Transnational Identity in Civil Conflict (Oxford, 2013)

Mackillop, Andrew, ‘Military Scotland in the age of proto-globalisation, c.1690 to c.1815’, in Forsyth, David, and Wendy Ugolini (eds.), A Global Force: War, Identities and Scotland's Diaspora (Edinburgh UP, 2016), pp.13-31 [The rest of the volume is post 1880]

Marks, Adam, ‘England, the English and the Thirty Years War (1618-1648)’, (PhD, University of St Andrews, 2012)

Martinez Ruiz, Enrique (ed.), Presencia de flamencos y valones en la milicia española (Madrid: Ministerio de Defensa, 2018)

McLaughlin, Mark G., The Wild Geese: The Irish Brigades of France and Spain (London: Osprey, 1980)

Mesa Gallego, Eduardo de, Glimpses of Irishmen in Spanish armies, 1621-1644’, The Irish Sword, 29 (2014), 268-309

McCormack, John, One million mercenaries: Swiss soldiers in the armies of the world (London: Leo Cooper, 1993)

Meier, Jürg A., Vivat Hollandia. Zur Geschichte der Schweizer in hollandischen Diensten 1740-1795. Griffwaffen und Uniformen (Zürich: GMS, 2008)

Mesa, Eduardo de, The Irish in the Spanish Armies in the Seventeenth Century (Woodbridge: Boydell, 2014).

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Meyer, Erich, Solothurnische Geschichte in Einzelbildern. Vom Solddienstpatriziat zum Landesstreik (Olten, 2002)

Miller, J., Swords for hire. The Scottish mercenary (Edinburgh, 2010) Müller von Friedberg, Karl, Chronologische Darstellung der eidgenössiischen Truppenüberlassungen an ausländischen Mächte (St Gallen: Huber und Cie, 1793)

Murdoch, Steve, Britain, Denmark-Norway and the House of Stuart, 1603-1660 (East Linton, 2003)

Murdoch, Steve (ed.), Scotland and the Thirty Years War, 1618-1648 (Leiden, 2001)

Murdoch, Steve, ‘Nicrina ad Heroas Anglos. An overview of the British and the Thirty Years War’, in Serena Jones (ed.), Britain turned Germany: The Thirty Years War and its Impact on the British Isles(Solihull: Helion, 2020), pp.15-36

Murphy, David, The Irish Brigades, 1685-2006: A Gazeteer of Irish Military Service, Past and Present(Dublin, 2007: Four Courts)

Murphy, David, Condottieri 1300-1500 (Oxford: Osprey, 2007)

Murtagh, Harman, ‘Irish soldiers abroad, 1600-1800’, in Thomas Bartlett/Keith Jeffrey (eds.), A Military History of Ireland (Cambridge, 1996), pp.294-314

Nichols, Alistair, Wellington’s Switzers: The Watteville Regiment (1801-1816) – A Swiss regiment of the British army in Egypt, the Mediterranean, Spain and Canada (London, 2014)

Nichols, Alistair, Wellington’s Mongrol Regiment: A History of the Chasseurs Britanniques Regiment in the British Army, 1801-1814 (London, 2005)

Núñez, José María Blanco (ed.), Presencia italiana en la milicia española (Madrid: Ministerio de Defensa, 2016)

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C1.7 Prisoners

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C1.8 Hospitals

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Israel, Jonathan, ‘The politics of international trade rivalry during the Thirty Years War: Gabriel de Roy and Olivares’ mercantilist projects, 1621-1645’, The International History Review, 8 (11986), 517-

Lund, Erik A., War for the everyday: Generals, knowledge and warfare in early modern Europe, 1680-1740 (Westport, CT: Praeger, 1999)

Mackillop, Andrew/Steve Murdoch (eds.), Military Governors and Imperial Frontiers c.1600-1800(Leiden: Brill, 2003) esp. chapters by A. Grosjean and S. Murdoch.

Siebenhüner, Kim, ‘The art of making Indienne: Knowing how to dye in eighteenth-century Switzerland’, in K. Siebenhüner/John Jordan/Gabi Schopf (eds.), Cotton in Context: Manufacturing, Marketing and Consuming Textitles in the German-speaking World (1500-1900) (Cologne: Böhlau, 2019), pp.145-70

Stoye, John, Marsigli’s Europe, 1680-1730: The Life and Times of Luigi Ferdinando Marsigli, Soldier and Virtuoso (New Haven: Yale, 1994)

Skrycki, Radosław. ‘Swedish Military Cartography of the Thirty Years’ War. The Example of Pomerania and the New March (Neumark)’, Przegląd Zachodniopomorski, (2019), 173–88. https://doi.org/10.18276/pz.2019.4-08.

C3. Information and Intelligence Ash, Eric H. (ed.), Expertise: Practical knowledge and the early modern states (Kingston, RI, 2010) Osiris, vol.25 special issue)

Behringer, Wolfgang, Im Zeichen der Merkur: Reichspost und Kommunikationsrevolution in der Frühen Neuzeit (Göttingen: Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht, 2002).

Bély, Lucien, Espions et ambassadeurs au temps de Louis XIV (Paris, 1990)

Blair, Ann, Too Much to Know: Managing Scholarly Information before the Modern Age (New Haven: Yale, 2010)

Braun, Guido, and Susanne Lachenicht (eds.), Spies, Espionage, and Secret Diplomacy in the Early Modern Period (Stuttgart: Kohlhammer, 2021)

Félix, Joël, ‘Paths to fiscal transparency: Control, knowledge and communication in early modern politcs’, Histoire et Mesure, 29 (2015), 3-23

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Friedrich, Suzanne, Drehscheibe Regensburg: Das Informations- und Kommunikationssystem des Immerwährende Reichstags um 1700 (Berlin: Akademie Verlag, 2007)

Gonzáles Cruz, David, Propaganda e información en tiempos de Guerra españa y America (1700-1714)(Madrid, 2009)

Gonzalez, Victor García, ‘Irish military engineers in the eighteenth century,’ in Downey, D.M. and Pérez

Tostado, I. (eds.): Commerce, culture, politics and warfare: studies in Spanish-Irish connections (Valencia:

Albatros, 2018).

Higgs, Edward, The Information State in England (Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2003)

Infelise, Mario, ‘The War, the News and the Curious: Military Gazettes in Italy,’ in The Politics of Information in Early Modern Europe, eds. Sabrina Alcorn Baron and Brendan Dooley (New York: Routledge, 2001), pp.216-236.

Keller, Katrin, ‘Kommunikationsraum Altes Reich’, Zeitschrift für Historische Forschung, 31 (2004), 205-30

Koh, Choon Hwee, ‘The Ottoman postmaster: Contractors, communication and early modern state formation’, Past and Present, (2020),

Lamal, Nina, ‘Communicating conflict: Early modern soldiers as information gatherers’, Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies, 50 (2020), 13-31

Lesger, C., The Rise of the Amsterdam Market and Information Exchange: Merchants, Commercial Expansion and Change in the Spatial Economy of the Low Countries, c. 1550-1630 (Aldershot, 2006).

Linnarsson, Magnus, ‘The development of the Swedish post office, c.1600-1718’, in Heiko Droste (ed.), Connecting the Baltic Area. The Swedish Postal System in the Seventeenth Century (Huddinge: Södertörns högskola, 2011), 25-47

Marshall, Alan, Intelligence and Espionage in the Reign of Charles II, 1660-1685 (Cambridge, 1994)

Neal, Larry, and S. Quinn, ‘Networks of information, market, and institutions in the rise of London as a financial centre’, Financial History Review, 8 (2001), 7-26

North, Michael (ed.), Kommunikationsrevolutionen: Die neuen Medien des 16. und 19. Jahrhunderts(Cologne: Böhlau, 1995),

Pieper, R., ‘Informationszentren im Vergleich: Die Stellung Venedigs und Antwerpen im 16. Jahrhundert’, in Michael North (ed.), Kommunikationsrevolutionen: Die neuen Medien des 16. Und 19. Jahrhunderts(Cologne: Böhlau, 1995), pp.45-60

Pohlig, Matthias, Marlboroughs Geheimnis: Strukturen und Funktionen der Informationsgewinnung im Spanischen Erbfolgekrieg (Cologne, 2016)

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Pohlig, Matthias, ‘Staatliche Geheimdienst oder private Spionagefirma? Pierre Jurieu, Etienne Caillaud und die englische REgierung um 1700’, Zeitschrift für Historische Forschung, 43 (2016), 255-92

Popper, Nicholas, ‘An information state for Elizabethan England’, Journal of Modern History, 90 (2018), 503-35

Rivas Ibanez, Ignacio, Mobilizing Resources for War: The British and Spanish Intelligence Systems in the War of Jenkins Ear (1739-1744) (Saarbrucken, 2009: VDM Verlag)

Rosseaux, Ulrich, ‘Das Reich und seine Territorien als Kommunikationsraum im Frühen 17. Jahrhundert’, Blätter für deutsche Landesgeschichte, 137 (2001), 73-99

Schröder, Peter, Trust in Early Modern Political Thought, 1598-1713 (Cambridge, 2017)

Soll, J., The Information Master: Jean-Baptiste Colbert’s Secret Intelligence System (Ann Arbour, 2009)

Stansfield, Stewart, Early modern systems of command: Queen Anne's generals, staff officers, and the direction of Allied armies in the Low Countries and Germany, 1702-1711 (Warwick: Helion, 2015) chapter on information

Szabados, János, ’Habsburg–Ottoman Communication in the Mid-17th Century – The Death of Imperial Courier Johann Dietz. A Case Study,’ Osmanli Arastirmalari/Journal of Ottoman Studies, 54 no.2 (2019), 119-140.

Szabados, János, "Ih awer befleise mih, daß ih sie beidte zue nahbarn mahen khan." – Die Karriere des deutschen Renegaten (Hans Caspar) in Ofen (1627–1660) im politischen und kulturellen Kontext. Teil I.: Die Berichte Hans Caspars (1640-1659) - Eine Quellenedition. Teil II., Dissertation (Szegedi Tudományegyetem, Történelemtudományi Doktori Iskola, 2019)

Szechi, Daniel (ed.), The Dangerous Trade: Spies, Spymasters and the Making of Europe (Dundee UP. 2010)

C4. Finance

C4.1 General Abildgren, Kim, ‘Consumer prices in Denmark, 1502-2007’, Scandinavian Economic History Review, 58 (2010), 2-24

Atack, Jeremy/Larry Neal (eds.), The origins and development of financial markets and institutions from the seventeenth century to the present (Cambridge, 2009)

Attman, Artur, The Bullion Flow between Europe and the East 1000-1750 (Goteborg: Goteborg University, 1981)

Bindseil, Ulrich, Central Banking Before 1800: A Rehabilitation (New York NY: Oxford University Press, 2019)

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Cardoso, J.L., Paying for the liberal state: The rise of public finance in nineteenth-century Europe(Cambridge, 2010)

Carter, Alice Clare, Getting, Spending and Investing in Early Modern Times: Essays on Dutch, English and Huguenot Economic History (Assen, 1975)

Cassis, Youssef, Capitals of capital: A history of international financial centres, 1780-2005 (Cambridge, 2006)

Chaudhuri, Sushil; Denzel, Markus A., Cashless Payments and Transactions from the Antiquity to 1914 (Stuttgart: Steiner, 2008)

Claeys, Thierry, Les Institutions financières de la France au XVIIIe siècle (2 vols., Paris: SPM, 2011)

Denzel, Markus A., Handbook of World Exchange Rates, 1590-1914 (Farnham, 2010)

DuPlessis, Robert S., Transitions to Capitalism in Early Modern Europe. Economies in the Era of Early Globalization, c. 1450-c. 1820 (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2019)

Ferguson, Niall, The Cash Nexus: Money and Power in the Modern World 1700-2000 (New York: Basic Books, 2001) Sweeping study of finance across the world, but based ultimately on a study of bond prices in London (and later in New York) as both a reflection and cause of money’s impact on the wider world, by driving processes such as military intervention.

Flynn, Denis O., World Silver and Monetary History in the 16th and 17th Centuries (Aldershot, 1996)

Flynn, Denis O./A. Giráldez/R. von Glahn (eds.), Global Connections and Monetary History 1470-1800 (London, 2003: Ashgate)

Homer, S., A History of Interest Rates (2nd ed., New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers UP, 1977)

Lindemann, Mary, and Jared Poley (eds.), Money in the German-speaking Lands (New York: Berghahn, 2017)

Michie, Ranald, The Global Securities Market: A History (Oxford, 2006)

Moles, Peter, and Nicholas Terry, The Handbook of International Financial Terms (Oxford UP, 1997)

Neal, L. The Rise of Financial Capitalism: International Capital Markets in the Age of Reason (Cambridge, 1990)

North, Michael, Kommunikation, Handel, Geld und Banken in der Frühen Neuzeit (2nd ed, Munich, 2014) [EDG series]

Nyberg, Klas, ‘The early modern financial system and the informal credit market’, in Anders Ögren (ed.), The Swedish Financial Revolution (Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2010), pp.14-40

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49

Platt, D.C.M., Foreign Finance in Continental Europe and the USA, 1815-1870: Quantities, Origins, Fluctuations and Distribution (London: Allan and Unwin, 1984).

Roseveare, Henry, The financial revolution 1660-1760 (London, 1991)

Stahl, A., ‘The making of a gold standard: the ducat and its offspring, 1284-2001’, in J. Munro (ed.), Money in the Pre-Industrial World: Bullion, Debasem*nt and Coin-Substitution (London, 2012), pp.45-62

Stryker, L., ‘The king’s currency: Gustav II Adolf and the copper standard (1619-1632)’, Scandinavian Economic History Review, 65 (2017), 52-69

t’Hart, Marjolein/Joost Jonker/Jan Luiten van Zanden, A Financial History of the Netherlands (Cambridge, 1997)

Van Bochove, C., ‘Configuring financial markets in preindustrial Europe’, Journal of Economic History, 73 (2013), 247-78

Veseth, M., Mountains of Debt: Crisis and Change in Renaissance Florence, Victorian Britain and Postwar America (Oxford: OUP, 1991)

Zanden, Jan Luiten van, ‘The development of government finances in a chaotic period, 1807-1850’, Economic and Social History in the Netherlands, 7 (1996), 57-72

C4.2 War Finance Barro, Robert J., ‘Government spending, interest rates, prices and budget deficits in the United Kingdom, 1701-1918’, Journal of Monetary Economics, 20 (1987), 221-47.

Bosher, J.F., French Finances, 1770-1795: From Business to Bureaucracy (Cambridge, 1970).

Busch, Michael, ‘“Was kostet ein Soldat?” Schwedische Kriegsfinanzierung im Dreißigjährigen Krieg’, in Michael Jonas/Ulrich Lappen Küper/Oliver von Wrochem (eds.), Dynamiken der Gewalt. Krieg im Spannungsfeld von Politik, Ideologie und Gesellschaft (Paderborn, 2015), pp.46-60

Chaline, Olivier, Les armees du Roi: Le grand chantier xviie-xviiie siècle (Paris: Armand Colin, 2016)

Le Goff, T., ‘How to finance and eighteenth-century war’, in W.M. Ormorod/Richard Bonney/M. Bonney (eds.), Crises, Revolutions and Self-Sustained Growth: Essays in European Fiscal History (Stamford, 1999), pp.377-413

Meagher, Thomas A., Financing Armed Conflict (2 vols., Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2017). [on the US 1775-1975]

Reinhart, C.M., and K.S. Rogoff, This Time is Different: Eight Centuries of Financial Folly (Princeton, 2009)

t’Hart, Marjolein, The Making of a Bourgeois State: War, politics and finance during the Dutch Revolt (Manchester, Manchester University Press 1993)

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50

Treue, Wilhelm, ‘Die Finanzierung der Kriege 1864-1871 durch die Deutschen Länder’, Vierteljahrsschrift für Sozial- und Wirtschaftsgeschichte, 75 (1988), 1-14

Wilson, P.H., ‘War Finance, Policy and Strategy in the Thirty Years War’, in Michael Rohrschneider/Anuschka Tischer (eds.), Dynamik durch Gewalt? Der Dreißigjährige Krieg (1618-1648) als Faktor der Wandlungsprozesse des 17. Jahrhunderts (Münster, 2018: Aschendorff), pp.229-50

Wilson, P.H., ‘Financing the War of Spanish Succession in the Holy Roman Empire’, in Matthias Pohlig/Michael Schaich (eds.), The War of Spanish Succession: New Perspectives (Oxford University Press, 2018), pp.267-97

Zielinski, Rosella Capella, How States Pay for Wars (Ithaca, NY, 2016: Cornell UP)

C4.3 Subsidies and Pensions Bodensten, Erik. “Political Knowledge in Public Circulation: The Case of Subsidies in Eighteenth-Century Sweden.” In Johan Östling et al. (eds.), Circulation of Knowledge: Explorations in the History of Knowledge (Lund: Nordic Academic Press, 2018), pp.82-104.

Edelmeyer, Friedrich, Söldner und Pensionäre. Das Netzwerk Philipps II. im Heiligen Römischen Reich(Vienna, 2002)

Carl William Eldon, England’s Subsidy Policy Towards the Continent During the Seven Years’ War(Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania, 1938)

Eldon, Carl William, ‘The Hanoverian subsidy treaty with Ansbach (1755): A typical German subsidy treaty of the eighteenth century’, Journal of Modern History, 12 (1940), 59-68

Ernst, Hildegard, ‘Spanische Subsidien für den Kaiser 1632-1642’, in K. Repgen (ed.), Krieg und Politik 1618-1648 (Munich, 1988), pp.299-312

Harivel, Maud/Florian Schmitz/Simonar Slanick, Fremde Gelder? Pensionen in der frühneuzeitlichen Eidgenossenschaft (2018) 978-3034014199

Norrhem, Svante, Mercenary Swedes: French Subsidies to Sweden 1631-1796 (Lund: Nordic Academic Press, 2019).

Norrhem, Svante and Erik Thomson (eds.), Subsidies, diplomacy, and state formation in Europe 1494-1789. Economies of allegiance (Lund University Press 2020) Open Access.

Peter-Claus Hartmann, Geld als Instrument europäischer Machtpolitik im Zeitalter des Mercantilismus 1715-1740 (Munich, 1978)

Sherwig, John M., Guineas and Gunpowder British Foreign Aid in the Wars with France, 1793–1815(Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1969)

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Storrs, Christopher, ‘“Große Erwartungen”. Britische Subsidienzahlungen an Savoyen im 18. Jahrhundert’, in Peter Rauscher/Andrea Serles/ Thomas Winkelbauer (eds.), Das ‘Blut des Staastkörpers’(Munich, 2012), pp.87-126

Wilson, P.H., ‘The German “soldier trade” of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: A reassessment’, The International History Review, 18 (1996), 757-92

Wilson, P.H., ‘The Holy Roman Empire and the problem of the armed Estates’, in Peter Rauscher (ed.), Kriegführung und Staatsfinanzen. Die Habsburgermonarchie und das Heilige Römische Reich vom Dreißigjährigen Krieg bis zum Ende des habsburgischen Kaisertums 1740 (Aschendorff, Münster, 2010), pp.487-514

Windler, Christian, “Ohen Geld keine Schweizer”: Pensionen und Söldnerrekrutierung auf den eidgenossischen Patronagemärkten’, in Hillard von Thiessen/Christian Winderl (eds.), Nähe in der Ferne: Personale Verflechtungen in den Aussenbeziehungen der Frühen Neuzeit (Berlin, 2005), pp.105-33

Würgler, Andreas, ‘Symbiose ungleicher Partner: Die französisch-eidgenössische Allianz 1516-1795/1815’, Jahrbuch für Europäische Geschichte, 12 (2011), 53-75

C4.4. Credit and Debt Ackermann, Jürgen, Verschuldung, Reichsdebitverwaltung, Mediastiserung. Eine Studie zu den Finanzproblemen der mindermächtigen Stände im alten Reich. Das Beispiel der Grafschaft Ysenburg-Büdingen 1687-1806 (Marburg, 2002)

Anderson, B. L., ‘Money and the structure of credit in the 18th century’, Business History, 12 (1970) pp.

85–101.

Ansani, Fabrizio Antonio, ‘A “magnificent” military entrepreneur? The involvement of the Medici bank in the arms trade (1482-1494)’, Business History (2022).

Attman, A., The Bullion Flow between Europe and the East 1000-1750 (Gothenburg, 1981)

Austin, Peter E., The Baring Brothers and the Birth of Modern Finance (London: Routledge, 2007)

Boyajian, James C., Portuguese Bankers at the Court of Spain, 1626-1650 (New Brunswick, NJ., 1983: Rutgers UP)

Brandon, Pepijn, ‘“The whole art of war is reduced to money”: remittances, short-term credit and financial intermediation in Anglo-Dutch military finance, 1688-1713’, Financial History Review, 25 (2018), 19-41

Buist, M.G., At spes non fracta: Hope and Co. 1770-1815, Nerchant Bankers and Diolomats at Work (The Hague, 1974)

Burkhardt, J., and M. Häberlein, Die Welser: Neue Forschungen zur Geschichte und Kultur des oberdeutschen Handelshauses (Berlin, 2002).

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52

Claeys, Thierry, Les institutions financières de la France au xviiie siècle (2 vols., Paris: SPM, 2011)

Claeys, Thierry, Dictionnaire biographique des financiers en France au xviiie siècle (2 vols., Paris: SPM, 2009)

Conkin, John, ‘The theory of sovereign debt and Spain under Philip II’, The Journal of Political Economy, 106 (1998), 483-513

Corporation fo Foreign Bondholders, The Principal Foreign Loans (London, 1877) [lists loans by year]

Costeleo, M.P., Bonds and Bondholders: British Investors and Mexico’s Foreign Debt, 1814-1888(Westport, CT, 2003)

Dawson, Frank Griffith, The First Latin American Debt Crisis: The city of London and the 1822-5 Loan Bubble (New Haven: Yale, 1990)

Day, John, Money and Finance in the Age of Merchant Capitalism (Oxford, 1999)

Day, John, ‘Great bullion famine of the fifteenth century’, Past and Present, 79 (1978), 3-54.

Denzel, Markus A., Das System des bargeldlosen Zahlungsvehrkehrs europäischer Prägung vom Mittelalter bis 1914 (Stuttgart: Steiner, 2008)

Denzel, Markus A., Der Nürnberger Banco Publico, seine Kaufleute und ihr Zahlungsverkhr (1621-1827) (Stuttgart, 2012).

Dillen, J.G. van (ed.), History of the Principal Public Banks (The Hague, 1934).

Dreilichman, Mauricio/Hans-Joachim Voth, Lending to the Borrower from Hell: Debt, Taxes and Default in the Age of Philip II (Princeton, 2014)

Elon, A., Founder: Meyer Amschel Rothschild and his Time (London, 1996)

Engström, Nils-Göran, Johan Adler Salvius – Krigsbankir och fredsfämjare (Stockholm, 1998)

Feenstra, A., ‘Hiding in a twilight zone: Credible commitment in the Dutch Republic and Groningen’s 1680s default’, Histoire et Mesure, 30 (2015), 79-116

Félix, Joel, ‘“The most difficult financial matter that has ever presented itself”: paper money and the financing of warfare under Louis XIV’, Financial History Review, 25 (2018), 43-70

Ferguson, Naill, The House of Rothschild (2 vols., New York: Penguin, 1999)

Graham, Aaron, ‘The War of the Spanish Succession, the Financial Revolution, and the Imperial Loans of 1706 and 1710’, in Matthias Pohlig/Michael Schaich (eds.), The War of Spanish Succession: New Perspectives (Oxford University Press, 2018), pp.299-321

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Graham, Aaron, ‘Huguenots, Jacobites, Prisoners and the challenge of military remittances in early modern warfare’, War and Society, 40 (2021), 171-87

Häberlein, Mark, The Fuggers of Augsburg: Pursuing Wealth and Honor in Renaissance Germany(Charlottesville, VA, 2012: Univ. of Virginia Press) [covers 1485-1650]

Helleiner, Karl F., The Imperial Loans: A Study in Financial and Diplomatic History (Oxford, 1965) [1795-6 loans]

Hoffman, Philip T., Priceless Markets: The Political Economy of Credit in Paris, 1660-1870 (Chicago, 2001)

Hoppit, Julian, ‘Attitudes to credit in Britain, 1680-1790’, Historical Journal, 33 (1990), 305-22

Israel, Jonathan, ‘The Amsterdam Stock Exchange and the Enlgish Revolution of 1688’, Tijdschrift voor Geschiedenis, 103 (1990), 412-18

Jonker, Joost, Merchants, Bankers, Middlemen: The Amsterdam Money Market during the First Half of the 19th Century (Amsterdam, 1996)

Kellenbenz, H., Die Fugger in Spanien und Portugal bis 1560 (Munich: E. Voegel, 1970)

Kofas, John V., Financial Relations of Greece and the Great Powers, 1832-1862 (New York: Columbia UP,

1981)

Lopez-Morell, M.A., The House of Rothschild in Spain, 1812-1941 (2013)

Lorenzen-Schmidt, K.-J., (ed.), Geld und Kredit in der Geschichte Norddeutschlands (Neumünster, 2006).

Lüthy, Herbert, La banque Protestante en France de la Révocation de l’Edict de Nantes à la Révolution (2

vols., Paris, 1959-61: SEVPFN)

Lüthy, Herbert, Die Tätigkeit der Schweizer Kaufleute und Gewerbetreibenen in Frankreich unter Ludwig

XIV. und der Regenschaft (Aarau, 1943: HR Sauerländer)

McCusker, J.J., Money and Exchange in Europe and America, 1600-1775 (London, 1978).

Monter, William E., ‘Swiss investments in England, 1697-1720’, Revue internationale d’histoire de la banque, 2 (1969), 285-98

Mueller, R.C., The Venetian Money Market: Banks, Panics and the Public Debt, 1200-1500 (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins, 1997).

Munro, John H., Bullion Flows and Monetary Policies in England and the Low Countries, 1350-1500(Aldershot: Variorum, 1992).

Murphy, Anne, The Origins of English Financial Markets: Investment and Speculation before the South Sea Bubble (Cambridge, 2012)

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54

Neal, Larry, ‘How it all began: The monetary and financial archicture of Europe during the first global capital market, 1648-1815’, Financial History Review, 7 (2000), 117-40

North, Michael (ed.), Geldumlauf, Währungssysteme und Zahlungsverkehr in Nordwesteuropa 1300-1800 (Cologne, 1989).

North, Michael (ed.), Kredit im spätmittelalterlichen und frühneuzeitlichen Europa (Cologne, 1991).

North, Michael, Das Geld und seine Geschichte vom Mittelalter bis zur Gegenwart (Munich, 1994).

Otruba, G., ‘Die Bedeutung englischer Subsidienund anticipationen für die Finanzen Österreichs 1701 bis 1748’, Vieteljahrsschrift für Sozial- und Wirtschaftsgeschichte, 51 (1964), 192-234

Outhwaite, R.B., ‘Royal borrowing in the reign of Elizabeth I: The aftermath of Antwerp’, English Historical Review, 86 (1971), 251-63

Outhwaite, R.B., ‘The trials of foreign borrowing: The English crown and the Antwerp money market in the mid-sixteenth century’, Economic History Review, 19 (1966), 289-305.

Pezzolo, L., ‘Government debts and trust. French kings and Roman popes as borrowers 1520-1660’, Rivista di Storia Economica, 15 (1999), 233-61

Pohl, H., Hamburger Bankengeschichte (Mainz, 1986).

Pohl, H., Deutsche Börsengeschichte (Frankfurt, 1993).

Pohl, H., Europäische Bankengeschichte (Frankfurt, 1993).

Rowlands, Guy, Dangerous and Dishonest Men: The International Bankers of Louis XIV’s France(Basingstoke, 2014)

Rowlands, Guy, ‘The economics of war: Tax, trade and credit in pursuit of an acceptable peace’, in Renger de Bruin and Maarten Brinkman (eds.), Peace was made here: The Treaties of Utrecht, Rastaat and Baden 1713-1714 (Petersberg: Michael Imhof, 2013), pp.34-41

Sanz Ayán, Carmen, Un banquero en el siglo de oro: Octavio Centrui ón, el financiero de los Austrias(Madrid, 2015: La esfera de los libros) [on Octavio Centurión 1578-1653]

Saton, Ernest Mason, The Silesian Loan and Frederick the Great (Oxford, 1915)

Schneider, J., and O. Schwarzer, ‘International rates of exchange: Structures and trends of payments mechanisms in Europe, 17th to 19th century’, in W. Fischer, R. Marvin McInnes and J. Schneider (eds.), The Emergence of a World Economy 1500—1914 (Wiesbaden: Steiner, 1986), pp.143-70.

Schubert, E.S., ‘Innovations, debts and bubbles: International integration of financial markets in Western Europe, 1688-1720’, The Journal of Economic History, 48 (1988), 299-306.

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Silva, J.G. da, Banque et credit en Italie au xviie siècle (2 vols. Paris, 1969)

Spooner, F., The International Economy and Monetary Movements in France, 1493-1725 (Cambridge, MA., 1972).

Spufford, P., Money and its Uses in Medieval Europe (Cambridge, 1988).

Spufford, P., ‘Access to credit and capital in the commercial centres of Europe’, in C.A. Davids and J. Lucassen (eds.), A Miracle Mirrored: The Dutch Republic in European Perspective (Cambridge, 1995), pp.303-37.

Stancke, B., The Danish Stock Market, 1750-1840 (Copenhagen, 1971)

Stasavage, David, States of Credit: Size, Power and the Development of European Politics (Princeton, 2011)

Sussman, Nathan, and Yishay Yafeh, ‘Institutional reforms, financial development and sovereign debt: Britain 1690-1790’, Journal of Economic History, 66 (2006), 906-35

Teichova, A., D. Kurgan van Hentenryk, and D. Ziegler (eds.), Banking Trade and Industry: Europe, America and Asia from the Thirteenth to the Twentieth Century (Cambridge, 1997).

Tomz, Michael, Reputation and International Cooperation: Sovereign Debt across three Centuries(Princeton, 2007)

Tracy, James D., Emperor Charles V, Impresario of War: Campaign Strategy, International Finance, and Domestic Politics (Cambridge, 2002)

Ullmann, H.-P., ‘Der Frankfurter Kapitalmarkt um 1800: Enstehung, Struktur und Wirken einer modernen Finanzierungsinstitution’, VSWG, 77 (1990), 75-92.

Volckart, Oliver, ‘Power politics and princely debts: Why Germany’s common currency failed, 1549-56’, Economic History Review, 70 (2017), 758-78

Voth, Hans-Joachim, ‘Debt, default and empire: State capacity and economic development in England and Spain in the early modern period’, Economic History Review, (2015)

Winton, Patrik, ‘Politics of debt, war and peace: Scandinavia 1800-1830’, Scandinavian Journal of History, 38 (2013), 458-79

Ziegler, P., The Sixth Great Power: Barings, 1762-1929 (London, 1988)

C5. War Materials

C5.1 General

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Ágoston, Gábor, Guns for the sultan: Military power and the weapons industry in the Ottoman empire(Cambridge, 2005)

Bailey, De Witt, British Board of Ordnance Small Arms Contractors 1689-1840 (Rhyl: W.S. Curits, 1999)

Bailey, De Witt, British Military Longarms, 1715-1815 (Harrisburg, PA: Stackpole, 1972).

Belfanti, C.M., ‘A chain of skills: The production cycle of firearms manufacture in the Brescia area from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century’, in A. Guenzi/P. Massa/F. Piola Caselli (eds.), Guilds, markets and work regulation in Italy, 16th-19th centuries (London: Routledge, 1998), pp.266-83

Blaufarb, Rafe, ‘Arms for revolutions: Military demobilisation after the Napoleonic Wars and Latin American Independence’, in Alan Forrest/Karen Hagemann/Michael Rowe (eds.), War, Demobilization and Memory. The Legacy of War in the Era of Atlantic Revolutions (Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2016), pp.110-16.

Boterbloem, Kees. The Dirty Secret of Early Modern Capitalism: The Global Reach of the Dutch Arms Trade, Warfare and Mercenaries in the Seventeenth Century. New York, NY: Routledge, 2020.

Bradley, Joseph, Guns for the tsar. America technology and the small arms industry in nineteenth-century Russia (Dekalb, Il, 1990)

Brandon, Pepijn, War, capital and the Dutch state (1588-1795) (Leiden, 2015)

Buchanan, Brenda J. (ed.), Gunpowder, Explosives and the State: A Technological History (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2006).

Chew, Emrys, Arming the periphery: The arms trade in the Indian Ocean during the age of global empire(New York, 2012: Palgrave)

Cole, Gareth, Arming the Royal Navy, 1793-1815: The Office of Ordnance and the State (London: Pickering and Chatto, 2012)

Collier, Basil, Arms and the Men: The Arms trade and Governments (London: H. Hamilton, 1980)

Cressy, David, Saltpeter: The Mother of Gunpowder (Oxford, 2013)

Cressy, David, ‘Saltpetre, state security and vexation in early modern England’, Past and Present, 212 (2011), 73-111

Davis, R.C., Shipbuilders of the Venetian Arsenal: Workers and Workplace in a Pre-Industrial City(Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins UP, 1991)

Dornik, Wolfram/Johannes Gießauf/Walter M. Iber (eds), Krieg und Wirtschaft von der Antike bis ins 21. Jahrhundert (Innsbruck, 2010) [includes chapter on Seville cannon foundry]

Edwards, Peter, Dealing in death: the arms trade and the British Civil Wars, 1638-52 (Stroud, 2000).

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Engelbrecht, H.C., and Harry Elmer Barnes, Merchants of Death: A Study of the International Armament Industry (New York: Dodd, Mead and Co., 1934)

Frey, James W. ‘The Indian salpeter trade, the military revolution, and the rise of Britain as a global superpower’, The Historian, 71 (2009), 507-54

González Enciso, Agustín, ‘Buying Cannons Outside: When, Why, How Many? The Supplying of Foreign Iron Cannons for the Spanish Navy in the Eighteenth Century’, In Richard Harding and Sergio Solbes Ferri (eds.), The Contractor State and Its Implications, 1659-1815 (Las Palmas de Gran Canaria: Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 2012), pp.135-57

Grant, Jonathan, Rulers, Guns and Money: The Global Arms Trade in the Age of Imperialism (Cambridge, MA: Harvard, 2007)

Grant, Jonathan, ‘Merchants of Death: The International Traffic in Arms’, Origins: Current Events in Historical Perspective, 3, (2012).

Inikori, J.E., ‘The import of firearms into West Africa 1750-1807: A quantitative study’, Journal of African History, 18 (1977), 339-68

James, Harald, Krupp: The History of a Legendary Firm (Princeton, NJ, 2012)

Jaun, Rudolf/David Rieder (eds.), Schweizer Rüstung: Politik, Beschaffungen und Industrie im 20. Jahrhundert (Baden, 2013)

Jong, M.A.G. de., Staat van oorlog: wapenbedrijf en militaire hervorming in de Republiek der Verenigde Nederlanden, 1585-1621 (Hilversum, 2005).

Kelly, Jack. Gunpowder: A History of the Explosive That Changed the World. London: Atlantic, 2004.

Krause, Keith, Arms and the State Patterns of Military Productions Trade (Cambridge, 1992)

Kronenbitter, Günther, Armeerüstung und wirtschaftliche Entwicklung in Österreich(-Ungarn) 1860 bis 1890’, in M. Epkenhans/G.P. Groß (eds.), Das Militär und der Aufbruch in die Moderne 1860 bis 1890(Munich, 2003), pp.213-44.

Lind, Gunner, ‘Gun control and national defence in sixteenth and seventeenth-century Denmark’, War in History, 28 (2021), 485-503

Lind, Gunner, ‘Early military industry in Denmark-Norway, 1500-1814’, Scandinavian Journal of History, 38 (2013), 405-21

Manchester, William, The Arms of Krupp (London, 1969)

McKenna, Joseph, The Gunmakers of Birmingham 1660-1960 (McFarland, 2020)

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Mocarelli, Luca/Giulio Ongaro, ‘Weapon’s production in the Republic of Venice in the Early Modern Period: The manufacturing centre of Brescia between military needs and economic equilibrium’, Scandinavian Economic History Review, 65 (2017), 231-42

Mork, G.R., ‘Flint and steel: A study in military technology and tactics in seventeenth-century Europe’, Smithsonian Journal of History, 2 (1967), 25-52

Ongaro, Guilio, Peasants and soldiers: the management of the Venetian military structure in the mainland dominion between the 16th and 17th centuries (London, 2017: Routledge).

Pollack, Sheldon, War, Revenue and State-Building: Financing the Development of the American State (Ithaca: Cornell, 2009)

Puype, Jan Piet and Marco van der Hoeven (eds.), The arsenal of the world: the Dutch arms trade in the seventeenth century (Amsterdam: Batavian Lion, 1996). [original: Jan Piet Puype and Marco van der Hoeven (eds.), Het arsenaal van de wereld: De Nederlandse wapenhandel in de Gouden Eeuw (Amsterdam, 1993)] ‘Eleven Dutch military historians collectively provide a good overview of the military developments of the Eighty Years’ War, including the Dutch army, the navy, the use of privateering, war financing and war industry, Maurice of Nassau’s sieges, and the battles of Nieuwpoort and Heiligerlee.’

Satia, Priya, Empire of Guns: The Violent Making of the Industrial Revolution (London, 2018)

Smith, W.H.B., Mauser rifles and pistols (Harrisburg, PA, 1946)

t’Hart, Marjolein, The Dutch Wars of Independence: Warfare and Commerce in the Netherlands, 1570-1680 (London, Routledge 2014)

Visser, H.L. and DeWitt Bailey (eds.), Aspects of Dutch Gunmaking: A Collection of Essays (Zwolle: Waanders, 1997)

West, Jenny, Gunpowder, government and war in the mid-eighteenth century (Woodbridge, 1991)

Yorulmaz, Naci, Arming the Sultan: German Arms Trade and Personal Diplomacy in the Ottoman Empire before World War I (London, 2014).

Zunckel, Julia, Rüstungsgeschäfte im Dreißigjährigen Krieg. Unternehmer, Kräfte, Militärgüter und Marktstrategien im Handel zwischen Genua, Amsterdam und Hamburg (Berlin: Duncker und Humblot, 1997).

C5.2 Liege Arms Production Bailey, DeWitt, ‘Liege muskets in the British Army, 1740-1783’, in H. L. Visser and DeWitt Bailey (eds.), Aspects of Dutch Gunmaking: A Collection of Essays (Zwolle: Waanders, 1997)

Burnside, Graham, ‘Nicholas Plomdeur Liege,’ Gun Report, 8, no. 1 (June 1962), p. 20.

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Dale, Michel Francois, La fabrication du fusil "Modele 1777" a la Manufacture Imperiale d'Armes de Liege (Liege, 1810).

Dresse, Edmond, ‘L'industrie des canons de fusils au Pays de Liege,’ Memoires et publications de la Societe des Sciences des Arts et des Lettres du Hainaut, 5e serie Vol. 8 (1895)

Gaier, Claude, Four Centuries of Liege Gunmaking, trans F.J. Norris (Liege and London, 1976)

Gaier, Claude, Belgian Gunmaking and American history (Liege, 1976).

Gelinas, Kevin, ‘Liege firearms in New France’, Man at Arms, 38, no. 5 (October 2016), 23-6, 31-2.

Kist, J.B., Musket, roer en pistolet. 17de-eeuws wapenhandwerk in de Lage Landen (The Hague, 1974)

Pasleau, Jean-F, Les armuriers Liegeois du XVe au XIXe siècle (?, 1973)

Polain, Alphonse, Recherches historiques sur l'epreuve des armes a feu au pays de Liege (Liege, 1891)

Wolf, Paul J, ‘Liege all-metal multi-barrelled flintlock pistols,’ Journal of the Arms and Armour Society, 6, no. 7 (September 1969), 197-200, 205-8

Ziesing, Dirk, ‘Deux revolvers de la manufacture de Liege,’ Gazette des Armes, 361 (January 2005), 28-32

C5.3 Naval Stores Albion, Robert G. Forests and Sea Power: The Timber Problem of the Royal Navy, 1652–1862(Cambridge, MA, 1926: Harvard University Press) Devotes one important chapter to English policy in the Baltic and to the rivalry with the Dutch in the northern timber trade. Emphasizes the growing influence of victualing the British navy with Baltic naval stores as key for Great Britain’s power.

Christensen, Aksel E. Dutch Trade to the Baltic about 1600: Studies in the Sound Toll Registers and Dutch Shipping Records (Copenhagen, 1941: Munksgaard) Important study using the Sound toll registers and other Dutch archival materials. Focuses on Amsterdam’s shipping in the Baltic and analyzes the traded commodities, primarily grains, but also timber, hemp, linen, pitch, and tar. One of the original contributions of this book is its assessment of fraud shown by comparing primary sources.

Davey, James, The Transformation of British Naval Strategy: Seapower and Supply in Northern Europe, 1808-1812 (Rochester, NY: Boydell, 2012)

Feldbæk, Ole et al., eds. Dansk søfarts historie. 7 vols. (Copenhagen: Gyldendal, 1997) The first three volumes cover our time period until 1814; general overview over everything naval: ships, routes, trade, naval warfare, navigation, fishing, harbours, etc. Several illustrations of different ship types, maps, weapons, etc., includes tables on naval traffic, developments, owned ships, etc.; esp. the second volume discusses naval warfare, although it also turns up in the other volumes

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Johansen, Hans Christian. Shipping and Trade between the Baltic Area and Western Europe, 1784–95(Translated by Davenport Lesley. Odense, 1983: Odense University Press) An essential and extensive study based on important archival material, primarily the Sound toll registers. One of the most methodological contributions of this book is the investigation of shipping and trade in peacetime and in the shifting period to wartime

Kent, Heinz S. K. War and Trade in Northern Seas: Anglo-Scandinavian Economic Relations in the Mid Eighteenth Century (Cambridge, 1973: Cambridge University Press) This detailed study deals with Great Britain’s relations with Denmark and Sweden before and during the Seven Years’ War (1756–1763). After six chapters on commercial exchanges with the Baltic in peacetime, the author analyzes the considerable tea smuggling from Scandinavia to Great Britain, and then focuses on Baltic commerce in wartime.

Layton, Ian G., ‘The timber and naval stores supply regions of Northern Europe during the early modern European world system’, in Hans-Jürgen Nitz (ed.), The Early Modern World System in Geographical Perspective (Stuttgart, 1993), pp.265-95

Wing, John T., Roots of Empire: Forests and State Power in Early Modern Spain, C. 1500-1750, (Leiden: Brill, 2015).

Zysberg, André, Les galériens. Vies et destins de 60,000 forçats sur les galères de France, 1680-1748(Seuil, 1987).

C5.4 Horses Bogros, Denis, ‘Les chevaux de la cavalerie francais a la fin du xviie siecle’, Histoire, economie et societe, 15 (1996), 105-12

Stradling, R.A., ‘Spain’s military failure and the supply of horses 1600-1660’, History, 69 (1984)

C5.5 Logistics

Lynn, John A. (ed.) Feeding Mars. Logistics in Western Warfare from the Middle Ages to the Present (Boulder, Oxford: Westview Press, 1993) Collection of essays on logistics with 3 essays on early modern supply (Spanish naval warfare 16th c., Supply chain and fortresses under Louis XIV, American Revolution), and incl. a comprehensive bibliography on supply, excl. War finance and arms production

Van Creveld, Martin, Supplying War. Logistics from Wallenstein to Patton (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 22004) Standard literature for supply and logistics, originally published in 1977, due to a lack of references (bibliography or each chapter is provided), it’s a bit hard to follow up on

White, Lorraine, 'Strategic geography and the Spanish Habsburg monarchy's failure to recover Portugal, 1640-1668', Journal of Military History, 71 (2007), 373-409

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C6. Services

C6.1 Ports and Bases Antunes, Cátia, ‘Early Modern Ports, 1500–1750’, in: European History Online (EGO), published by the Institute of European History (IEG), Mainz 2010-12-03. URL: http://www.ieg-ego.eu/antunesc-2010-en URN: urn:nbn:de:0159-2010102547 [YYYY-MM-DD].

Collin, Michèle, ed. Ville et port, XVIIIe–XXe siècle. Papers presented at a conference held in Marseille in 1993 (Paris, 1994: L’Harmattan) Offers twenty-four case studies on a dozen French ports examining port management and infrastructures as well as their actors and the spatial networks in which the port is embedded

Jackson, Gordon, ‘Ports 1700 to 1840’, in Peter Clark (ed.), The Cambridge Urban History of Britain, vol. 2: 1540–1840 (Cambridge, 2000: Cambridge University Press), pp.705-32 Useful overview of the development of British ports during this period, especially in relation to the growth of the country’s imperial and international commerce. Aimed at an academic audience; a good introduction to the wider literature.

Jarvis, Adrian, ‘Port History: Some thoughts on where it came from and where it might be going’, in Lewis R. Fischer and Adrian Jarvis (eds.), Harbours and Havens: Essays in Port History in Honour of Gordon Jackson (Research in Maritime History, 16. St John’s, Newfoundland, 1999: International Maritime Economic History Association) Important overview of the development of academic thinking and historiography about ports and their role in the wider fields of economic and social development.

Harkavy, Robert E., Strategic Basing and the Great Powers, 1200-2000 (London: Routledge, 2011)

Palmer, Sarah, ‘Using the Port of London Authority Archive for Commercial History’, in M. V. Roberts (ed.), Archives and the Metropolis (London, 1998: Guildhall Library) Introduction to the Port of London Archive for business historians. Invaluable for students of business and economic history examining the trade of London.

Tazzara, Corey, ‘Managing free trade in early modern Europe: Institutions, information, and the Free Port of Livorno,’ The Journal of Modern History, 86, No. 3 (September 2014), 493-529

Tazzara, Corey, The Free Port of Livorno and the Transformation of the Mediterranean World (Oxford, 2017)

C6.2 Transit Matthee, Rudi, ‘Anti-Ottoman Politics and Transit Rights: The Seventeenth-Century Trade in Silk between Safavid Iran and Muscovy,’ Cahiers du Monde Russe, 35, No. 4 (Oct.-Dec., 1994), 739-61

Scholz, Luca, Borders and Freedom of Movement in the Holy Roman Empire (Oxford: Oxford UP, 2020)

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SECTION D: ECONOMIC ASPECTS

D1 General Adams, Julia, The Familial State: Ruling Families and Merchant Capitalism in Early Modern Europe(Ithaca: Cornell, 2007)

North, Douglas, Structure and Change in Economic History (New York, 1981)

Olson Jr., Mancur/Richard Zeckhauser, ‘An economic theory of alliances’, The Review of Economics and Statistics, 48 (1966), 266-79

Sandler, Todd, ‘The economic theory of alliances’, Journal of Conflict Resolution, 37 (1993), 446-83

van Bavel, Bas J. P. The Invisible Hand? How Market Economies Have Emerged and Declined Since AD 500(Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2019)

Rauscher, Peter/Andreas Serles (eds.), Wiegen, Zähen, Registrieren. Handelsgeschichtliche Massenquellen und die Erforschung mitteleuropäischer Märkte (13.-18. Jahrhundert) (Innsbruck, 2015)

Zanden, Jan Luiten van, The Long Road to the Industrial Revolution: The European Economy in a Global Perspective (Leiden: Brill, 2009)

D2 Mercantilism Heckscher, E.F, Mercantilism (London, 1935)

McCusker, J. J., Mercantilism and the Economic History of the Early Modern Atlantic World (Cambridge, 2001)

O’Brien, Patrick Karl, ‘The costs and benefits of mercantilist warfare’, Financial History Review, 25 (2018), 97-112

Ormrod, David, The Rise of Commercial Empires: England and the Netherlands in the Age of Mercantilism, 1650–1770 (Cambridge, 2003)

Vaggi, Gianni; Groenewegen, Peter, A Concise History of Economic Thought: From Mercantilism to Monetarism (New York, 2003)

D3 War and Economics

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Attman, Artur, The Struggle for Baltic Markets: Powers in Conflict 1558-1618 (Acta Regiae Societatis Scientiarum et Litterarum Gothoburgensis. Humaniora 14. Gothenburg: Kungl. Vetenskaps- och Vitterhets-Samhället, 1979).

Crouzet, François, La guerre économique franco-anglaise au XVIIIe siècle (Paris: Fayard, 2008)

Daunton, Martin, State and Markets in Victorian Britain: War, Welfare and Capitalism (Woodbridge, 2008)

Domik, Wolfram, Johannes Gießauf and Walter Iber (eds.), Krieg und Wirtschaft von der Antike bis ins 21. Jahrhunderts (Innsbruck: Studienverlag, 2010)

Groebner, Valentin et al (eds.), Kriegswirtschaft/Wirtschaftskrieg (Zürich, 2008)

Jones, D.W., War and Economy in the Age of William III and Marlborough (New York: Basil Blackwell, 1988)

O’Brien, Patrick Karl, ‘The impact of the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, 1793-1815, on the long0run growth of the British economy’, Review of the Fernard Braudel Center, 12 (1989), 335-95

Riley, James C., The Seven Years War and the Old Regime in France. The Economic and Financial Toll(Princeton: Princeton UP, 1987).

Rodger, N.A.M., ‘War as an economic activity in the “long” eighteenth century’, International Journal of Maritime History, 22 (2010), 1-18

D4 Contracts and Treaties Alimento, Antonella, and Koen Stapelbroek (eds.), The Politics of Commercial Treaties in the Eighteenth Century: Balance of Power, Balance of Trade (Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2017)

Conway, Stephen, ‘Moral economy, contract and negotiated authority in America. British and German militaries ca.1740-1783’, Journal of Modern History, 88 (2016), 34-59

Durst, Benjamin. Archive des Völkerrechts. Gedruckte Sammlungen europäischer Mächteverträge in der Frühen Neuzeit (Berlin, Boston: De Gruyter Oldenbourg, 2016)

Frey, Linda, and Marsha Frey (eds.), The Treaties of the War of the Spanish Succession. An Historical and Critical Dictionary (Westpoint, London: Greenwood Press, 1995)

Keene, Edward. “The Treaty-Making Revolution of the Nineteenth Century.” The International History Review 34, no. 3 (2012): 475–500.

Mokyr, Joel (ed.), Accounting and Bookkeeping - Contract Labor and the Indenture System. The Oxford encyclopedia of economic history 1 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003)

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Wilson, Peter H., ‘Mercenary contracts as fiscal-military instruments’, in Svante Norrhem/Erik Thomson (eds.), Subsidies, Diplomacy and State Formation in Europe, 1494-1789: Economies of Allegiance (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2020), pp.68-92

D5 Trade Blockmans, Wim, Mikhail Krom, and Justyna Wubs-Mrozewicz. The Routledge Handbook of Maritime Trade Around Europe 1300-1600: Commercial Networks and Urban Autonomy. Routledge History Handbooks. Florence: Taylor and Francis, 2017.

Cook, Harold, Matters of Exchange (New Haven, 2008)

Grafe, Regine, Der spanische Seehandel mit Nordwesteuropa von der Mitte des sechszehnten bis zur Mitte des siebzehnten Jahrhunderts (Saarbrucken: Verlag fur Entwicklungspolitik, 1998)

Johanek, P., and H. Stoob (eds.), Europäische Messen und Märktesysteme in Mittelalter und Neuzeit (Cologne: Böhlau, 1996).

Lamikiz, Xabier, Trade and Trust in the eighteenth-century Atlantic World: Spanish Merchants and their Overseas Networks (Woodbridge: Boydell, 2010)

Macalister-Smith, Peter, and Joachim Schwietzke, eds. Treaties and Other Acts in Multilateral Conference Diplomacy 1641 to 1924. Düns: Wolfgang Neugebauer Verlag, 2019.

Tracy, James D. (ed.), The Rise of Merchant Empires: Long-Distance Trade in the Early Modern World 1350-1750 (Cambridge, 1990)

SECTION E: DISMANTLING THE FMSy

E1 General Chappell, Jonathan, ‘Maritime raiding, international law and the suppression of piracy in the South China Coast, 1842-1869’, International History Review, 40 (2018), 473-92

Doyle, Don H., The cause of all nations: An international history of the American Civil War (New York, 2014)

Hanlon, Gregory. European Military Rivalry, 1500-1750: Fierce Pageant. Abingdon Oxon: Routledge, 2020.

Harling, Philip/Peter Mandler, ‘From “Fiscal-Military” to “Laissex-Faire” state, 1760-1815’, Journal of British Studies, 32 (1993), 44-70

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Leander, Anna, ‘Drafting community: Understanding the fate of conscription’, Armed Forces and Society, 30 no.4 (2004),

Posen, B. ‘Nationalism, the mass army, and military power’, International Security, 18 no.2 (1993), 80-124

Rapport, Michael, Nationality and Citizenship in Revolutionary France. The Treatment of Foreigners 1789-1799 (Oxford, 2000)

Schama, Simon, Patriots and liberators: revolution in the Netherlands, 1780-1813 (London, 1977).

Vick, Brian, ‘Power, humanitarianism and the global liberal order: Abolition of the Barbary Corsairs in the Vienna Congress system’, International History Review, 50 (2018), 939-60

Würgler, Andreas, ‘“The league of discordant members” or how the old Swiss confederation operated and how it managed to survive for so long’, in André Holenstein/Thomas Maissen/Marten Prak (eds.), The Republican Alternative: The Netherlands and Switzerland Compared (Amsterdam, 2008), pp.29-50

E2 Foreign Fighters Acciai, Enrico, ‘Traditions of armed volunteering and radical politics in Southern Europe: A biographical approach to Garibaldinism’, European History Quarterly, 49 (2019), 50-72

Acciai, Enrico, ‘Albanian transnational fighters: From the Spanish Civil War to the European resistance movements (1936-1945)’, War in History, 27 (2020), 346-67

Arielli, Nir, From Byron to Bin Laden: A History of Foreign War Volunteers (Cambridge: Harvard UP, 2018)

Arielli, Nir, Gabriela A. Frei, and Inge van Hulle, ‘The Foreign Enlistment Act, international law, and British politics, 1819-2014’, The International History Review, 38 (2016), 636-56.

Avant, Deborah D., ‘From mercenary to citizen armies: explaining change in the practice of war’, International Organization, 54 no.1 (2000), 41-72

Böhler, Jochen/Robert Gerwarth (eds.), The Waffen-SS: A European History (Oxford: OUP, 2017)

Bonvini, Alessandro, and Stephen Jacobson, ‘democratic imperialism and Risorgimento colonialism: European legionnaires on the Argentine Pampa in the 1850s’, Journal of Global History, (2021),

Bourne, Richard, Garibaldi in South America: An Exploration (London: Hurst, 2020)

Boyer, E., ‘Les volontaires français avec Garibaldi en 1860’, Revue d’histoire modern et contemporaine, 7 (1960), 123-49

Brebner, J.B., ‘Joseph Howe and the Crimean War enlistment controversy between Great Britain and the United States’, Canadian Historical Review, (1938), 300-27

Brett, E.M., The British Auxiliary Legion in the First Carlist War 1835-1838 (Dublin: Four Courts, 2005)

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Bron, Grégoire, ‘The exiles of the Risorgimento: Italian volunteers in the Portuguese Civil War (1832-34)’, Journal of Modern Italian Studies, 14 (2009), 427-44

Brownlie, Ian, ‘Volunteers and the laws of war and neutrality’, International and Comparative Law Quarterly, 5 no.4 (1956),

Carrard, Philippe, The French who fought for Hitler: Memoirs from the Outcasts (Cambridge, 2010)

Carteny, Andrea, La Legione Ungherese contro il Brigantaccio (Rome: Nuova Cultura, 2013)

Coulombe, Charles A., The pope’s legion: The multinational fighting force that defended the Vatican(Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2008);

Demet, Paul, ‘We are accustomed to do our duty’: German auxiliaries with the British army, 1793-95 (Warwick: Helion, 2018).

Dempsey, Guy, Napoleon’s Mercenaries (London: Greenhill Books, 2002)

duch*esne, Albert, L'expédition des volontaires belges au Mexique, 1864-1867 (Brussels: Musée royal de l'Armée et d'histoire militaire, 1967)

Estes, Kenneth W., A European Anabasis: Western European Volunteers in the German Army and SS, 1940-1945 (New York, 2008)

Forbes, Robert, For Europe: The French Volunteers of the Waffen SS (Mechanicsburg, PA, 2006)

Glozier, Matthew/David Onnekink (eds.), War, Religion and Service. Huguenot Soldiering, 1685-1713(Aldershot: Ashgate, 2007) Mostly about Huguenots in the British and Brandenburg-Prussian armies, a bit about them in the Dutch army, in Brunswick-Lüneburg, in Russia, and in Savoy-Piedmont

Göhde, Ferdinand Nicola, ‘A new military history of the Italian Risorgimento and Anti-Risorgimento: The case of transnational soldiers’, Modern Italy, 19 (2014), 21-39

Göhde, Ferdinand Nicolas, ‘German volunteers in the armed conflicts of the Italian Risorgimento 1834-70’, Journal of Modern Italian Studies, 14 (2009), 461-75

Gould, Robert W., Mercenaries of the Napoleonic Wars (Brighton: Tom Donovan, 1995)

Grasmeder, Elizabeth M.F., ‘Leaning on legionnaires: Why modern states recruit foreign soldiers’, International Security, 46 (2021), 147-95 [primarily about Nazi Germany]

Gregory, J.S., Great Britain and the Taipings (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1969)

Gutmann, Martin, ‘Debunking the myth of the volunteers: transnational volunteering in the Nazi Waffen SS officer corps during the Second World War’, Contemporary European History, 22 (2013)

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Heyries, Hubert, ‘The Garibaldian volunteers in France during the Fist World War’, Journal of Modern European History, 14 (2016), 359-73

Hippler, Thomas, ‘Heroism and the nation during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars and the age of military reform’, in Sibylle Scheipers (ed.), Heroism and the Changing Character of War(Basingstoke, 2016)

Hughes, Ben, Conquer or die! Wellington’s veterans and the liberation of the New World (Oxford: Osprey, 2010)

Ignace, Anne-Claire, ‘French volunteers in Italy, 1848-49: A collective incarnation of the fraternity of the peoples and of the tradition of French military engagement in Italy and Europe’, Journal of Modern Italian Studies, 14 (2009), 445-60

Kessel, Ineke van, ‘West African soldiers in the Dutch East Indies: From Donkos to Black Dutchmen’, Transactions of the Historical Society of Ghana, NS, 9 (2005), 41-60.

Koller, Christian, Die Fremdenlegion. Kolonialismus, Söldnertum, Gewalt (Paderborn: Schöningh, 2013)

Küttel, Stefan, Auf dem fäschen Zug: Im Dienste der Französischen Fremdenlegion während des Freiheitskampfes in Algerien (2002)

Krüger, Christine G./Sonja Levsen (eds.), War Volunteering in Modern Times from the French Revolution to the Second World War (Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2011)

Malet, David, Foreign Fighters: Transnational Identity in Civil Conflict (Oxford, 2013)

May, Robert E., Manifest Destiny’s Underworld: Filibusting in Antebellum America (Chapel Hill: UNC, 2003)

McLean, David, ‘Garibaldi in Uruguay: A reputation reconsidered’, English Historical Review, 113 (1998), 351-66

McLellan, Josie, ‘“I wanted to be a little Lenin”: Ideology and the German International Brigade volunteers’, Journal of Contemporary History, 41 (2006),

Miller, Robert Ryal, Shamrock and Sword: The Saint-Patrick’s Battalion in the US-Mexican War (U. of Oklahoma Press, 1989)

Miller, Rory, Britain and Latin America in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries (New York: Routledge, 2013) [covers recruitment in the Wars of Independence]

Mugnai, Bruno, Garibaldi in Sudamerica: Gli anni dell’esilio e della lotta 1835-1848 (Zanica: Soldiershop, 2014)

Murphy, David, Ireland and the Crimean War (Dublin, 2002: Four Courts Press)

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Paquette, G., ‘The intellectual context of British diplomatic recognition of the South American republics, c.1800-1830’, Journal of Transatlantic Studies, 2 (2004), 75-95

Pécout, Gilles, ‘The international armed volunteers: Pilgrims of a transnational Risorgimento’, Journal of Modern Italian Studies, 14 no.4 (2009), 413-26

Rink, Martin, ‘The partisan’s metamorphosis from freelance military enterpriser to German freedom fighter, 1740-1815’, War in History, 17 (2010), 6-36

Roberts, E., ‘Freedom, Faction, Fame and Blood’. British Soldiers of Conscience in Greece, Spain and Finland (Brighton, 2010)

Sandes, Flora, The Autobiography of a Woman Soldier: A Brief Record of Adventure with the Serbian Army 1916-1919 (New York, 1927)

Sandes, Flora, An English Woman-Sergeant in the Serbian Army (London, 1916)

Sarlin, Simon, ‘Fighting the Risorgimento: Foreign volunteers in Southern Italy (1860-1863)’, Journal of Modern Italian Studies, 14 no.4 (2009), 476-90

Scott, Sam, ‘The French Revolution and the Irish regiments in France’, in Hugh Gough/David Dickson (eds.), Ireland and the French Revolution (Dublin, 1990), pp.14-27

Smith, Richard J., Mercenaries and mandarins: The Ever-Victorious Army of nineteenth-century China(Millwood, NY: KTO, 1978)

St. Clair, William, That Greece might still be Free: The Philhellenes in the War of Independence (London, 1972)

Steiger, Rudolf von, Die Schweizer Regimenter in Königlich-Neapolitanischen Diensten in den Jahren 1848 und 1849 (2011 reprint)

Terzuolo, Eric R., ‘The Garibaldini in the Balkans, 1875-1876’, International History Review, 4 (1982), 111-26

Thomson, Janice E., Mercenaries, Pirates and Sovereigns: State-Building and Extra-Territorial Violence in Early Modern Europe (Princeton: Princeton UP, 1994)

Tozzi, Christopher J., Nationalizing France’s Army: Foreign, Black and Jewish Troops in the French Military, 1715-1831 (Charlottesville, VA, 2016: University of Virginia)

Tyler, W.R., ‘The British German Legion – 1854-1862’, JSHAR, 54 (1976), 14-29

Van Hulle, Inge, ‘Britain’s recognition of the Spanish American Republics: The gap between theory and practice in international law (1810-1900)’, The Legal History Review, 82 (2014),

Vick, Brian, ‘Power, humanitarianism and the global liberal order: Abolition of the Barbary Corsairs in the Vienna Congress system’, International History Review, 50 (2018), 939-60

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Viotti, Andrea, Garibaldi: The revolutionary and his men (Poole: Blandford, 1979)

Waddell, D.A.G., ‘British neutrality and Spanish-American independence: The problem of foreign enlistment’, Journal of Latin American Studies, 19 (1987), 1-18

Wheeler, Gerald John, Foreign Enlistment Act, 1870, 33 + 34 Vict.c.90. With Notes of the Leading Cases on this and the American Act (London, 1896)

Wilson, Andrew, The Ever-Victorious Army (1866, reprint London: Greenhill Books, 1991)

Wilson, P.H., ‘Foreign military labour in Europe’s transition to modernity’, European Review of History, 27 (2020), 12-32

E3 Neutrality Abbenhuis, Maartje, An Age of Neutrals: Great Power Politics 1815-1914 (Cambridge, 2015)

Abbenhuis, Maartje Maria, ‘A most useful for diplomacy and statecraft: Neutrality and Europe in the “long” nineteenth century, 1815-1914’, International History Review, 35 (2013), 1-22

Alimento, Antonella (ed.), War, Trade and Neutrality: Europe and the Mediterranean in the Seventeenth

Century (Milan, 2011).

Hague Convention XIII Concerning the Rights and Duties of Neutral Powers in Naval War, 18 October 1907 (Eng.-Fr.), in Adam Roberts and Richard Guelff (eds.), Documents on the Laws of War (3d ed., Oxford, 2000: Oxford University Press), pp.127-37 Less comprehensive coverage of neutral rights and duties during maritime warfare than is provided by Hague Convention V for neutrality during land warfare; protects neutral ports and waters; deemed largely declaratory of customary international law; remains in force. Originally reprinted in American Journal of International Law 2 (Suppl. 1908): 202–216.

Bustamente, A. de, ‘The Hague Convention concerning the rights and duties of neutral powers and persons in land warfare’, American Journal of International Law, 2 (1908)

Chevallaz, Georges André, The Challenge of Neutrality: Diplomacy and the Defense of Switzerland (Lanham: Lexington Books, 2001)

Feldbaek, Ole, ‘Eighteenth-century Danish neutraility: Its diplomacy, economics and law’, Scandianvian Journal of History, 8 (1983), 3-21

Gotthard, Axel, Der liebe und werthe Fried. Kriegskonzepte und Neutralitätsvorstellungen in der Frühen Neuzeit (Cologne: Böhlau, 2014)

Jessup, P.C., F. Deák, W. Alison Phillips, A.H. Reade and E.W. Turlington, Neutrality: Its History, Economics and Law (New York: Columbia UP, 1935)

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Lemnitzer, Jan, Power, law and the end of privateering (Basingstoke, 2014)

Madariaga, Isabel de, Britain, Russia and the Armed Neutrality of 1780. Sir James Harris's Mission to St Petersburg during the American Revolution (London, 1962)

Maissen, Thomas, ‘L’invention de la tradition de neutralité helvétique : une adaptation au droit des gens naissant du XVIIe siècle’, in Jean-François Chanet and Christian Windler (eds.), Les ressources des faibles. Neutralités, sauvegardes, accommodements en temps de guerre (XVIe-XVIIIe siècle) (Rennes: PUR, 2010), pp.17-46.

Mootham, O. H., ‘The Doctrine of Continuous Voyage, 1756–1815’, British Yearbook of International Law, 8 (1927), 62–80. Considers the “Rule of the War of 1756”; at p. 64 situates the ‘doctrine of continuous voyage’ as a breach of neutrality and explains the doctrine of ‘continuous transport’ utilized during the US Civil War, whereby merchants avoided the Southern blockade by transshipping contraband overland to its ultimate belligerent destination, after its initial disembarkation in neutral ports.

Muller, Leos, ‘Swedish merchant shipping in troubled times: The French Revolutionary Wars and Sweden’s neutrality 1793–1801’, The International Journal of Maritime History, 28:1 (2016), 147-64.

Neff, Stephen C., War and the Law of Nations: A General History (Cambridge, 2005)

Neff, Stephen C., The Rights and Duties of Neutrals: A General History (Manchester, 1990)

Rodogno, D., Against Massacre. Humanitarian Intervention in the Ottoman Empire 1815-1914(Princeton, 2012)

Schnakenbourg, Éric, Entre la guerre et la paix. Neutralité et relations internationales, XVIIe–XVIIIe siècles (Rennes, 2013)

Schweizer, Paul, Geschichte der schweizerischen Neutralität (Frauenfeld, 1896: J, Hubers Verlag)

Simms, Brendan/D.J.B. Trim (eds.), Humanitarian Intervention: A History (Cambridge, 2011)

Stapelbroek, Koen, (ed.), Trade and War: The Neutrality of Commerce in the Inter-State System. Collegium: Studies Across Disciplines in the Humanities and Social Sciences 10 (2011). The ten contributors cover neutrality issues in the eighteenth century and in the Napoleonic Wars. They include analysis of neutrality in politics, international relations and legislation. Useful to understand how contemporaries viewed the possibility of neutrality and the limits belligerents set to neutral shipping and trade.

Storrs, Christopher, “War, Neutrality and Commercial Treaties: The Savoyard State 1660–1789”. In A.

Alimento, & K. Stapelbroek (Eds.), The Politics of Commercial Treaties in the Eighteenth Century: Balance

of Power, Balance of Trade, pp. 321-347.

Waddell, D.A.G., ‘British neutrality and Spanish-American independence: The problem of foreign enlistment’, Journal of Latin American Studies, 19 (1987), 1-18

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SECTION F: CASE STUDIES

F1. Cities and Hubs Aerts, Erik et al. (eds.): Metropolitan Cities and their Hinterlands in Early Modern Europe: Session B-6: Proceedings tenth International Economic History Congress, Leuven 1990.

Caracausi, A., and Jeggle, Christian (eds.), Commercial Networks and European Cities, 1400-1800(London, 2014)

D’Amico, Stefano, Spanish Milan: A city within the Empire, 1535-1706 (New York: Palgrave, 2012)

Diedericks, H., and H. Reeder (eds.), Cities of Finance (Amsterdam, 1996)

Dincecco, Mark, and Massimiliano Gaetano Onorato, From Warfare to Wealth: The Military Origins of Urban Prosperity in Europe (Cambridge, 2017).

Gelderblom, Oscar, Cities of Commerce (Princeton, 2013)

Ginn, Geoffrey/Peter Spearritt, ‘Cities, imperial’, in J.M. MacKenzie (ed.), The Encyclopedia of Empire(London, 2016) DOI: 10.1002/978111455074.wbeoe306

Hohenberg, Paul M., and Lynn Hollen Lees, The Making of Urban Europe 1000-1994 (2nd ed, Cambridge MA: Harvard UP, 1995)

Holtfrerich, C-L., Frankfurt as a Financial Centre from Medieval Trade Fair to European Banking Centre(Munich, 1999)

Kenny, Nicholas/Rebecca Madgin (eds.), Cities beyond Borders: Comparative and Transnational Approaches to Urban History (Farnham, 2015: Ashgate)

Lees, Andrew/Lynn Hollen Lees, Cities and the Making of Modern Europe, 1750-1914 (Cambridge, 1997)

Lemberg, Marko, Marko Hakanen, and Janne Haikari (eds.), Physical and Cultural Spaces in Pre-Industrial Europe: Methodological Approaches to Spatiality (Lund: Nordic Academic Press, 2011).

Pollak, Martha, Cities at War in Early Modern Europe (Cambridge, 2010).

Polonia, Amelia et al. (eds.): European Seaport Systems in the Early Modern Age: A Comparative Approach, Porto 2007.

Prak, Maarten Roy, Citizens Without Nations: Urban Citizenship in Europe and the World, C.1000-1789(Cambridge, 2018)

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Andrés Ucendo, José Ignacio, and Michael Limberger, Taxation and Debt in the Early Modern City(London: Pickering and Chatto, 2012)

Wee, H. van der, The Growth of the Antwerp Market and the European Economy (Fourteenth-Sixteenth Centuries) (3 vols., The Hague, 1963).

Wilson, Peter H., and Marianne B. Klerk, ‘The Business of War untangled: Cities as Fiscal-Military Hubs in Europe, 1530s-1860s’, War in History, (2020) Open access at https://doi.org/10.1177/0968344520913583

F2 Amsterdam

F2.1 Source Editions Amsterdam Notarial Records: Alle Amsterdamse Akten (https://alleamsterdamseakten.nl/)

de Buck, Piet, Sebastiaan Kerkvliet and Milja van Tielhof, Amsterdamse notariële akten over de Archangelvaart 1594-1724 (http://resources.huygens.knaw.nl/archangel)

Colenbranden, H.T. Bescheiden uit vreemde archieven omtrent de groote Nederlandsche zeeoorlogen 1652-1676 (Den Haag 1919). (http://resources.huygens.knaw.nl/oorlogenzee)

van Dillen, J. G., ed. Bronnen tot de geschiedenis der Wisselbanken (Amsterdam, Middelburg, Delft, Rotterdam). 2 vols. Rijks Geschiedkundige Publicatiën 59–60 (The Hague, 1925). (http://resources.huygens.knaw.nl/retroboeken/wisselbanken/#page=0&accessor=toc&view=homePane)

van Dillen, J. G., ed. Bronnen tot de geschiedenis van het bedrijfsleven en gildewezen van Amsterdam. 3 vols. Rijks Geschiedkundige Publicatiën 144 (The Hague, 1929–1974). (http://resources.huygens.knaw.nl/bedrijfslevengildewezenamsterdam)

van Dillen, J.G., ‘Amsterdamsche notarieele acten betreffende den koperhandel en de uitoefening van mijnbouw en metaalindustrie in Zweden’, in Bijdragen en Mededeelingen van het Historisch Genootschap 58 (1937), pp. 211-301.

van Dillen, J.G., Het oudste aandeelhoudersregister van de Kamer Amsterdam der Oost-Indische Compagnie (The Hague, 1958).

Dudok van Heel, Sebastiaan A. C., Van Amsterdamse burgers tot Europese aristocraten: Hun geschiedenis en hun portretten; De Heijnen-maagschap, 1400–1800. Edited by A. M. W. Bulk-Bunschoten, R. J. van der Maal, and M. B. de Roever. Werken 17 (2 vols., The Hague, 2008).

Dutch Prize Papers https://prizepapers.huygens.knaw.nl/

Elias, Johan E. De vroedschap van Amsterdam, 1578–1795. 2 vols. (Amsterdam, 1963). (http://resources.huygens.knaw.nl/vroedschapamsterdam)

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Gewestelijke Financiën ten tijde van de Republiek der Verenigde Nederlanden 1572-1795 (http://resources.huygens.knaw.nl/gewestelijkefinancien)

Japikse, N., Correspondentie van Willem III en van Hans Willem Bentinck (1656-1702) (Den Haag 1927-1935) https://www.huygens.knaw.nl/resources/correspondentie-van-willem-iii-en-van-hans-willem-bentinck-1656-1702/

Heeringa, K. and J.G. Nanninga, Bronnen tot de geschiedenis van den Levantschen handel (1590-1826)(Den Haag 1910-1966) http://resources.huygens.knaw.nl/handellevant

Kernkamp, G.W. Archivalia uit de Baltische landen met betrekking tot de Nederlandse geschiedenis 1191-1792 (Den Haag 1909). (http://resources.huygens.knaw.nl/baltischelanden)

Rappard, van W.A., Briefwisseling tussen Simon van Slingelandt en Sicco van Goslinga 1697-17131 (Den Haag 1978) http://resources.huygens.knaw.nl/brievenslingelandtgoslinga

Veenendaal, A.J., Briefwisseling van Anthonie Heinsius 1702-1720 (http://resources.huygens.knaw.nl/briefwisselingheinsius)

Winkelman, P. H., ed. Bronnen voor de geschiedenis van de Nederlandse Oostzeehandel in de zeventiende eeuw. 6 vols. Rijks Geschiedkundige Publicatiën 133. (The Hague, 1971–1983). (http://resources.huygens.knaw.nl/handeloostzee1588-1625)

F2.2 Secondary Sources Adams, Julia, The Familial State: Ruling Families and Merchant Capitalism in Early Modern Europe(Ithaca: Cornell, 2007)

Van Alphen, Marc, Het Oorlogsschiep als varend bedrij. Schrijvers, Administratie en logistiek aan boord avn Nederlandse marineschepen in de 17de en 18de eeuw

Alpen, Marc van/Jan Hoffenaar/Alan Lemmers/Christiaan van der Spek, Krigsmacht en handelsgeest. Om het Machtsevenwicht in Europa 1648-1813 (Amsterdam: Boom, 2019)

Antunes, Cátia, ‘Sea and Land: The Integration of the Dutch and Portuguese Urban Hinterlands in the European Maritime System during the Seventeenth Century’, in: Simonetta Cavaciocchi (ed.), Ricchezza del Mare, ricchezza dal mare (secc. XIII–XVIII): The Wealth of the Sea and Wealth from the Sea, (Prato 2005), vol. 1, pp.115–145.

Barbour, V., Capitalism in Amsterdam in the 17th Century (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins UP 1950)

Bas, F. de, and F.J.G. ten Raa, Het Staatsche Leger 1568-1795. Volumes I-VIII (Breda 1911-1956)(Author vols. VI-VII only F.J.G. ten Raa, vol. VIII J.W.Wijn).

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Beks, G., ‘Hollands wapentuig voor Frankrijk 1635-1640’, in Puype, P. and M. van der Hoeven (eds.), Het arsenaal van de wereld: De Nederlandse waoenhandel in de Gouden Eeuw (Amsterdam, 1993), pp.28-25.

Bochove, Christiaan van, The Economic Consequences of the Dutch: Economic Integration around the North Sea, 1500-1800 (Amsterdam: Aksant, 2008)

Bochove, Christiaan van, and H. Kole, ‘Uncovering Private Credit Markets: Amsterdam, 1660-1809' in: TSEG/ Low Countries Journal of Social and Economic History 11:3 (2014), 39–72.

Bochove, Christiaan van, ‘External debt and commitment mechanisms: Danish borrowing in Holland, 1763-1825’, Economic History Review, 67 (2014), 652-77

Boels, Henk ed., Overheidsfinancien tijdens de Republiek en het Koninkrijk, 1600-1850 (Hilversum 2012).

Boer, Tessa de, ‘‘’Ma coustume ne soit de m’adresser aux villes’’ : Early Modern Amsterdam’s Dealings in City Diplomacy’, Diplomatica. A Journal of Diplomacy and Society, 3 (2021), 167-79.

Bogucka, M., ‘Saltpeter Production and Saltpeter Trade between Gdansk and Amsterdam in the First Half of the Seventeenth Century,’, in W.G. Heeres (ed.), From Dunkirk to Danzig. Shipping and Trade in the North Sea and the Baltic (Amsterdam, 1988), pp.167-170.

Boxer, C.R., The Dutch seaborne empire, 1600-1800 (London, 1965)

Brandon, Pepijn, War, capital and the Dutch state (1588-1795) (Leiden, 2015)

Brandon, Pepijn, ‘Finding solid ground for soldiers’ payment: ‘military soliciting’ as brokerage practice in the Dutch Republic (c. 1600-1795)’, in S. Conway and R. Torres Sanchez (eds.), The spending of states: military expenditure during the long eighteenth century: patterns, organisation and consequences, 1650-1815 (Saarbrucken: VDM Verlag Dr Muller, 2001), pp.51-82

Breedvelt-van Veen, F., Louis de Geer, 1587-1652 (Amsterdam, 1935).

Bruijn, J.R., De Admiraliteit van Amsterdam in rustige jaren 1713-1751. Regenten en financiën,schepen en zeevarenden (Amsterdam/Haarlem, 1970)

Bruijn, Jaap R., The Dutch navy of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries (Columbia, SC 1993)

Bruijn, Jaap R., Varend verleden. De Nederlandse oorlogsvloot in de zeventiende en achttiende Eeuw(Amsterdam 1998)

Buist, Marten G., At spes non fracta. Hope & co. 1770-1815 (The Hague, 1974)

Buist, M.G., ‘The sinews of war: The role of Dutch finance in European politics’, in A.C. Duke and C.A. Tamse (eds.), Britain and the Netherlands vol. VI (The Hague: Nijhoff, 1977), pp.124-40.

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Buist, M.G., ‘Russia’s entry on the Dutch capital market, 1770-1815’, Fifth International Economic History Conference Leningrad 1970 IV vol.3 (The Hague: Mouton, 1979), pp.151-64.

Burke, Peter, Venice and Amsterdam. A study of seventeenth-century élites (London, 1974)

Chapman, Stanley, The Rise of Merchant Banking (London, 1984).

Christensen, A.E., Dutch Trade to the Baltic about 1600 (Copenhagen/The Hague, 1941)

Carlos, Ann M. and Neal, Larry, ‘Amsterdam and London as financial centers in the eighteenth century’, Financial History Review, 18:1 (2011), 21-46.

Carter, Alice Clare, The Dutch Republic in Europe in the Seven Years War (London, 1971)

Cools, Hans, Steven Gunn, and David Grummitt, War, State, and Society in England and theNetherlands, 1477-1559 (Oxford/New York, 2007)

Davids, C.A. and L. Noordengraaf (eds.), The Dutch Economy in the Golden Age (Amsyterdam: NEHA, 1993).

Davids, C.A. and J. Lucassen (eds.), A Miracle Mirrored. The Dutch Republic in European Perspective(Cambridge 1995).

Davids, C.A., W.Fritschy and L.A.van der Valk (ed), Kapitaal, ondernemerschap en beleid. Studiesover economie en politiek in Nederland, Europa en Azië van 1500 tot heden (Amsterdam, 1996)

De Groot, A.H., The Ottoman Empire and the Dutch Republic: A History of the Earliest Diplomatic Relations 1610-1630 (Leiden/Istanbul: Nederlands Archeologisch Instituut, 1978)

Dehing, Pit, Geld in Amsterdam: Wisselbank en wisselkoersen, 1650-1725 (Hilversum: Uitgeverij Verloren, 2012).

Deurloo, A.J., ‘Bijltjes en klouwers. Een bijdrage tot de geschiedenis der Amsterdamse scheepsbouw,in het bijzonder in de tweede helft der achttiende eeuw’, Economisch- en Sociaal-HistorischJaarboek, Vol. 34 (1971,) 4-71

Doormans, E.H.M., Het tekort. Staatsschuld in de tijd der Republiek (Amsterdam, 1991).

Dillen, J.G. van, Van rijkdom en regenten. Handboek tot de economische en sociale geschiedenis van Nederland tijdens de Republiek (The Hague, 1970)

Diederiks, Herman, Een Stad in verval. Amsterdam omstreeks 1800 (Amsterdam, 1982).

Dunthorne, Hugh, The Maritime Powers 1721-1740. A Study of Anglo-Dutch Relations in the Age of Walpole (New York/London, 1986)

Elias, Johan E., De vlootbouw in Nederland in de eerste helft der 17de eeuw 1596-1655 (Amsterdam,

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1933)

Fatah-Black, Karwan and Matthias van Rossum, ‘De Nederlandse smokkelhandel, 1600-1800’, Tijdschrift voor Sociale en Economische Geschiedenis, 13:1 (2016), 1-22.

Feenstra, A., ‘Hiding in a twilight zone: Credible commitment in the Dutch Republic and Groningen’s 1680s default’, Histoire et Mesure, 30 (2015), 79-116

Franken, A.M., ‘The general tendencies and structural aspects of the foreign policy and diplomacy ofthe Dutch Republic in the latter half of the 17th century’, Acta Historiae Neerlandica, 3 (Leiden 1968), 1-42

Frijhoff, W. and M. Prak (eds.), Geschiedenis van Amsterdam: centrum van de wereld, 1578-1650(Amsterdam, 2005).

Fritschy, W., Public Finance of the Dutch Republic in Comparative Perspective (Leiden: Brill, 2017)

Fritschy, W., ‘Geld en oorlog. Financieel beleid in Holland en Overijssel vergeleken met Groot-Brittannië en Oostenrijk’, in: K. Davids and others (eds.), De Republiek tussen zee en vasteland.Buitenlandse invloeden op cultuur, economie en politiek in Nederland 1580-1800 (Leuven/Apeldoorn, 1995), pp.207-225

Fritschy, W., ‘A “financial revolution” reconsidered. Public finance in Holland during the DutchRevolt, 1568-1648’, Economic History Review, New series, 56, no. 1 (2003), 57-89

Fritschy, W., and R. Liesker, ‘Overheidsfinanciën, kapitaalmarkt en “institutionele context” inHolland en Overijssel tijdens en na de Spaanse Successie-Oorlog’, in: C.A.Davids, W.Fritschyand L.A.van der Valk (ed), Kapitaal, ondernemerschap en beleid. Studies over economie en politiek in Nederland, Europa en Azië van 1500 tot heden (Amsterdam, 1996), pp.165-196

Gawronski, Jerzy, De equipagie van de Hollandia en de Amsterdam. VOC-bedrijvigheid in 18de-eeuws Amsterdam (Amsterdam, 1996)

Geer van Jutfaas, J.L.W. de, Lodewijk de Geer van Finspong de Leusta (1587-1652) (Utrecht, 1852).

Gelderblom, Oscar (ed.), The Political Economy of the Dutch Republic (Farnham, 2009).

Gelderblom, Oscar, Cities of Commerce: The Institutional Foundations of International Trade in the Low Countries, 1250-1650 (Princeton, 2013).

Gelderblom, Zuid-Nederlandse kooplieden en de opkomst van de Amsterdamse stapelmarkt (1578-1630)(Hilversum, 2000).

Gelderblom, Oscar, and Joost Jonker, ‘Public finance and economic growth. The case of Holland inthe seventeenth century’, Journal of Economic History, 71, no. 1 (2011), 1-39

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Gelderblom, Oscar, The Resolution of Commercial Conflict in Bruges, Antwerp and Amsterdam, 1250-1650 (2005) online pdf

Gelderblom, Oscar and Joost Jonker, ‘Completing a financial revolution. The Finance of the Dutch East India trade and the rise of the Amsterdam capital market, 1595-1612’, Journal of Economic History, 64 (2004), 641-71

Glete, J., War and the State in Early Modern Europe: Spain, the Dutch Republic, and Sweden as fiscal-military states, 1500-1660 (New York, 2002). Dutch Republic deployed resources more successfully than its competitors.

Go, Sabine, Marine Insurance in the Netherlands, 1600-1870. A comparative Institutional Approach (Amsterdam 2009).

Gravestein, C., ‘Amsterdam and the Origins of Financial Journalism’, in Michael North (ed.), Kommunikationsrevolutionen: Die neuen Medien des 16. und 19. Jahrhunderts (Cologne: Böhlau, 1995), pp.61-72.

Groen, P., van Vliet, A., Sicking, L., van Nimwegen, O., and Prud’homme van Reine, R., De Tachtigjarige Oorlog (1568-1648) (Amsterdam, 2013).

Groen, P., Van Dissel, A., Loderichs, M., Limpach, R., and Zaalberg, T.B., Krijgsgeweld en kolonie. Opkomst en ondergang van Nederland als koloniale mogendheid (Amsterdam, 2021).

Gunn, Steven, David Grummitt, and Hans Cools, War, State, and Society in England and the Netherlands, 1477–1599 (Oxford, 2007).

Hart, S., and J. McCusker, ‘The rate of exchange on Amsterdam on London, 1590-1660’, The Journal of European Economic History, 8, no.3 (1979), 689-705.

Hattendorf, John B., ‘“To aid and assist the other”. Anglo-Dutch cooperation in coalition warfare atsea, 1689-1714’, in: Jan A.F. de Jongste and Augustus J. Veenendaal Jr. (eds), AnthonieHeinsius and the Dutch Republic 1688-1720. Politics, war, and finance (The Hague 2002) 177-198

Hatton, Ragnhild, ‘John Drummond in the War of the Spanish Succession. Merchant turneddiplomatic agent’, in: Ragnhild Hatton and M.S. Anderson (eds), Studies in diplomatic history. Essays in memory of David Bayne Horn (London 1970) 69-96

Heijer, Hendrick Jacob den (ed.), The VOC and the Exchange: How the VOC laid the Foundations for the World’s First Stock Exchange (Amsterdam: Euronext Amsterdam NV, 2002)

Holenstein, André, Thomas Maissen, and Maarten Prak (eds), The republican alternative. The Netherlands and Switzerland compared (Amsterdam, 2008)

Den Holland, Maurits and Remko J. Mooi, ‘Protecting the foreign creditor – International insolvency in early modern Amsterdam and Frankfurt am Main’, Tijdschrift voor Sociale en Economische Geschiedenis, 16: 3-4 (2019) 37-57.

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Israel, J., Dutch Primacy in World Trade 1585-1740 (Oxford, 1989).

Israel, Jonathan I., The Dutch Republic. Its rise, greatness, and fall 1477-1806 (Oxford, 1998)

Israel, Jonathan, ‘The Amsterdam Stock Exchange and the English Revolution of 1688’, Tijdschrift voor Geschiedenis, 103 (1990), 412-18

Jacob, Margaret C., and Wijnand W. Mijnhardt (eds.), The Dutch Republic in the eighteenth century. Decline, enlightenment, and revolution (Ithaca, NY/London, 1992)

Janssens, Geert H., The Dutch Revolt and Catholic Exile in Reformation Europe (Cambridge, 2014)

Janssens, G., ‘Verjaagd uit Nederland: Zuid-Nederlandse emigratie in de zestiende eeuw, een historiografisch overzicht (ca.1968-1994)’, Nederlands Archief voor Kerkgeschiedenis, 75 (1995), 102-19.

Jonckheere, Koenraad, ‘The “Solliciteur-Culturel”. Some notes on Dutch agents and internationaltrade in art and applied arts’, De Zeventiende Eeuw, 24, no. 2 (2008), 162-80

Jong, M.A.G. de., Staat van oorlog: wapenbedrijf en militaire hervorming in de Republiek der Verenigde Nederlanden, 1585-1621 (Hilversum, 2005).

Jong, M.A.G. de., ‘Dutch entrepreneurs in the Swedish Crown trade in copper and iron, 1580-1630,’ H. Brand (ed.), Trade, diplomacy and cultural exchange: continuity and change in the North Sea area and the Baltic, c. 1350-1750 (Hilversum, 2005), 36-57.

Jong, M.A.G. de., ‘Militaire hervormingen in het Staatse leger en de opbouw van het wapenbedrijf, 1585-1621’, Bijdragen en mededelingen betreffende de geschiedenis der Nederlanden, 118:4 (2003), 467-493.

Jones, J.R., The Anglo-Dutch Wars of the seventeenth century (London, 1996)

Jongste, Jan A.F. de, and Augustus J. Veenendaal Jr. (eds)., Anthonie Heinsius and the Dutch Republic1688-1720. Politics, war, and finance (The Hague, 2002)

Jonker, Joost, Merchants, Bankers, Middlemen: The Amsterdam Money Market during the First Half of the 19th Century (Amsterdam, 1996)

Jonker, Joost, and Keetie Sluyterman, At Home on the World Markets. Dutch International TradingCompanies from the 16th century until the Present (The Hague, 2000)

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Klein, Peter W., De Trippen in de 17e eeuw: Een studie over het ondernemersgedrag op de Hollandse stapelmarkt (Assen, 1965).

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Klerk, Marianne, ‘The ‘fiscal-military hub’ of Amsterdam: Intermediating the French subsidies to Sweden during the Thirty Year’s War’, in: S. Norrhem and E. Thomson (eds.), Subsidies, diplomacy, and state formation in Europe, 1494-1789 (Lund, 2020). Open Access.

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Kooijmans, L., ‘Risk and reputation: on the mentality of merchants in the early modern period,’ in C. Lesger and L. Noordegraaf (eds.), Entrepreneurs and entrepreneurship in early modern times: merchants and industrialists within the orbit of the Dutch staple market (The Hague, 1995).

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Lindemann, Mary, The Merchant Republics: Amsterdam, Antwerp and Hamburg, 1648-1790 (New York, 2015: CUP)

Lindemann, Mary, ‘Dirty politics or “Harmonie”? Defining corruption in early modern Amsterdam and Hamburg’, Journal of Social History, 45 (2012), 582-604.

Lunsford, Virginia, Piracy and privateering in the Golden Age Netherlands (New York 2005)

Neal, L., ‘The integration and efficiency of the London and Amsterdam stock markets in the eighteenth century’, The Journal of Economic History, 47 (1987), 97-115.

Nierop, Henk van, ‘Politics and the people of Amsterdam’, in: Peter van Kessel and Elisja Schulte(eds), Rome / Amsterdam. Two growing cities in seventeenth-century Europe (Amsterdam, 1997), pp.156-167

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Riley, James C., International Government Finance and the Amsterdam Capital Market, 1740-1815(Cambridge, 1980)

Riley, James C., ‘Dutch economy after 1650: Decline or Growth?’, The Journal of Economic History, 13 (1984), 521-69.

Rommelse, Gijs, The Second Anglo-Dutch War (1665-1667). Raison d'état, mercantilism and maritime strife (Hilversum 2006)

Rooms, E., ‘Bezoldiging, bevoorrading en inkwartiering van de koninklijke troepen in de Spaanse Nederlanden (1567-1700)’, Bijdragen en mededelingen betreffende de geschiedenis der Nederlanden, 118:4 (2003), pp. 519-544.

Roorda, D.J., ‘The ruling classes in Holland in the seventeenth century’, in: J.S. Bromley and E.H.Kossmann (eds.), Britain and the Netherlands. Papers delivered to the Anglo-Dutch Historical Conference 1962, Volume II (Groningen, 1964), pp.109-32

Sandström, Åke. Mellan Torneå och Amsterdam: En undersökning av Stockholms roll som förmedlare av varor i regional- och utrikeshandel 1600-1650 Stockholmsmonografier 102. (Stockholm: Stockholms stad, 1990).

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Sicking, Louis, Neptune and the Netherlands. State, economy, and war at sea in the Renaissance(Leiden/Boston, 2004)

Smith, Woodruff D., ‘The function of commercial centers in the modernization of Europeancapitalism. Amsterdam as an information exchange in the seventeenth century’, The Journal ofEconomic History, 44, no. 4 (1984), 985-1005

Snapper, Frits, Oorlogsinvloeden op de overzeese handel van Holland 1551-1719 (Amsterdam, 1959)

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Spufford, P., ‘Access to credit and capital in the commercial centres of Europe’, in C.A. Davids and J. Lucassen (eds.), A Miracle Mirrored: The Dutch Republic in European Perspective (Cambridge, 1995), pp.303-37.

Steensgaard, N., ‘The Dutch East India Company as an Institutional Innovation’, in M. Aymard (ed.), Dutch Capitalism and World Capitalism (Cambridge, 1982), pp.235-57.

Swart, Erik, Krijgsvolk. Militaire professionalisering en het ontstaan van het Staatse leger, 1568-1590(Amsterdam, 2006)

t’Hart, Marjolein, The Dutch Wars of Independence: Warfare and Commerce in the Netherlands, 1570-1680 (London: Routledge, 2014)

t’Hart, Marjolein, The Making of a Bourgeois State: War, politics and finance during the Dutch Revolt (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1993)

t’Hart, Marjolein/Joost Jonker/Jan Luiten van Zanden, A Financial History of the Netherlands (Cambridge, 1997)

Hart, Marjolein 't, ‘Staatsfinanciën als familiezaak tijdens de Republiek. De ontvangers-generaalDoubleth’, in: J.Th. de Schmidt (ed.), Fiscaliteit in Nederland. 50 jaar belastingmuseum ‘Prof.

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Dr. Van der Poel’ (Zutphen 1987) 57-66

Tielhof, Milja van, The ‘Mother of All Trades’: The Baltic Grain Trade in Amsterdam from the late 16th to the early 19th Century (Leiden: Brill, 2002)

Tracy, James D., ‘Keeping the wheels of war turning’. Revenues of the Province of Holland, 1572-1619’, in: Graham Darby (ed), The Origins of the Dutch Revolt (London, etc. 2001), pp.131-51

Tracy, James D., The Founding of the Dutch Republic. War, Finance, and Politics in Holland 1572- 1588 (Oxford 2008)

Ufer, Ulrich, Welthandelszentrum Amsterdam: Globale Dynamik und modernes Leben im 17. Jahrhundert (Cologne: Böhlau, 2008)

Unger, R.W., Dutch Shipbuilding before 1800 (Assen, 1978).

Veenendaal, A.J. ed., Anthonie Heinsius adn the Dutch Republic, 1688-1720: politics, war, and finance (Den Haag, 2002).

Veenstra, Wietse, Tussen gewest en generaliteit. Staatsvorming en financiering van de oorlog te water in de Republiek der Verenigde Nederlanden, in het bijzonder Zeelaand (1586-1795) (Zutphen, 2014).

Veluwenkamp, J.W., ‘De Nederlandse wapenhandel op Rusland in de zeventiende eeuw’, Armamentaria, 31 (1996), 71-6.

Vermeesch, Griet, Oorlog, steden en staatsvorming. De grenssteden Gorinchem en Doesburg tijdens de geboorte-eeuw van de Republiek (1570-1680) (Amsterdam, 2006)

Vogel, H., ‘De Republiek als wapenexporteur’, in Jan Piet Puype and Marco van der Hoeven (eds.), Het arsenaal van de wereld: De Nederlandse wapenhandel in de Gouden Eeuw (Amsterdam, 1993), pp. 13-21.

Vogel, H., ‘Arms Production and Exports in the Dutch Republic, 1600-1650,’ in M. van der Hoeven (ed.), Exercise of Arms: Warfare in the Netherlands (1568-1648) (Brill, 1998), pp.197-210.

Vries, J. de, and van der Woude, A., The First Modern Economy. Success, Failure, and Perseverance of the Dutch Economy, 1500–1815 (Cambridge, 1997).

van Waveren, A.I ‘Engels gietijzeren geschut: een Nederlandse handel 1609-1640’, in Puype, P. and M. van der Hoeven (eds.), Het arsenaal van de wereld: De Nederlandse waoenhandel in de Gouden Eeuw (Amsterdam, 1993), pp.28-37.Elias Trip as key person.

Van der Wee, Herman, ‘Les innovations de la technique financière à Bruges, Anvers et Amsterdam (XIIIe-XVIIIe siècle)’, Revue belge de philologie et d’histoire, 89:2 (2011) 861-72.

Westera, L.D., ‘De Geschutgieterij in de Republiek’, in: Clé Lesger and Leo Noordegraaf (eds),Ondernemers en bestuurders. Economie en politiek in de Noordelijke Nederlanden in de late

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middeleeuwen en vroegmoderne tijd (Amsterdam, 1999), pp.575-602

Westera, Bert, 'Mennonites and war in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: The Brants family between pacifism and trade in guns’ in: A. Hamilton and S. Voolstra eds., From Martyr to Muppy (Mennunite Urban Professionals): a historical introdcution to cultural assimiliation processes of a religious minority in the Netherlands: the Mennonites (Amsterdam, 1994).

Westera, L.D., Met list en Vlijt. Koningen & kooplieden en de kanonnenhandel tijdens de Republiek (PhD Dissertation University of Amsterdam 2018). Accessible from 24th may 2020 https://dare.uva.nl/search?field1=keyword;value1=Kanonnen;docsPerPage=1;startDoc=2

Wijnroks, E.H. Handel tussen Rusland en de Nederlanden, 1560-1640. (Hilversum, 2003).

Wilson, C.H., Anglo-Dutch Commerce and Finance in the Eighteenth Century (Cambridge, 1941)

Zanden, Jan Luiten van, ‘Government finances 1807-1850’, Economic and Social History in the Netherlands, (1997)

Zanden, Jan Luiten van/M. Prak, ‘Towards an economic interpretation of citizenship: The Dutch Republic between medieval communes and modern nation states’, European Review of History, 10 (2006), 121-47

Zanden, Jan Luiten van and Milja van Tielhof, ‘Roots of growth and productivity change in Dutch shipping industry, 1500-1800', Explorations in Economic History, 46:4 (2009), 389-403.

Zunckel, Julia, Rüstungsgeschäfte im Dreißigjährigen Krieg. Unternehmer, Kräfte, Militärgüter und Marktstrategien im Handel zwischen Genua, Amsterdam und Hamburg (Berlin: Duncker und Humblot, 1997).

Zwitzer, H.L., ‘De controle op de rekeningen van de solliciteurs-militair door de kapiteins in hetStaatse Leger. Een handschrift uit de 18e eeuw’, Mededelingen van de Sectie Krijgsgeschiedenis Koninklijke Landmacht, 1, no. 1 (1978), 75-95

Zwitzer, H.L., ‘De militie van den staat’. Het leger van de Republiek der Verenigde Nederlanden (Amsterdam, 1991).

F3. Gdansk (Danzig)/Baltic

F3.1 Sources

Bang, Nina Ellinger (ed.), Tabeller over Skibsfart Og Varetransport Gennem Øresund, 1497-1660: Første Del (Copenhagen, Leipzig: Gyldendalske boghandel; Nordisk Forlag; Harrassowitz, 1906). These are the old tables for the sound toll books which have been used throughout the 20th century. They are not as exact as the Sound Toll Register Online (STRO) since they have a much higher level of abstraction. Neither they nor the STRO include the documents from the archives not in the account books (e.g. letters, regulations, disputes).

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Bes, Lennart, Edda Frankot, and Hanno Brand, Baltic Connections: Archival Guide to the Maritime Relations of the Countries around the Baltic Sea (Including the Netherlands) 1450–1800, 3 vols. (Leiden, 2007). ‘This very valuable guide brings together archival references from eight Baltic countries and the Netherlands. It provides information on sources preserved in numerous archival centers. This impressive work is an essential research tool for any scholar working on trade, shipping, migration, diplomacy, and all kinds of exchange in the Baltic world from the end of the Middle Ages to the Early Modern era.’

Cieślak, Edmund, and Jozef Rumiński (eds.), Les rapports des résidents français à Gdansk au XVIIIème siècle (2 vols., Gdansk, 1964-8: Gdańskie Towarzystwo Naukowe) These two volumes cover the years 1715–1721 and contain the reports of the French residents in Gdansk (Danzig at that time). Useful for firsthand information on commerce and politics in the Baltic theatre at the end of the Great Northern War

Brunius, Jan, Vasatidens samhälle: En vägledning till arkiven 1520-1620 i Riksarkivet. Skrifter utgivna av Riksarkivet 32. (Stockholm: Riksarkivet, 2010). Overview which sources are in which archives, how the archives are structured, and how the Vasa institutions were structured

Romefors, Örjan, Utrikesförvaltningens källor 1520-2000. Skrifter utgivna av Riksarkivet 39. (Stockholm: Riksarkivet, 2017).

Sundberg, Ulf, Svenska freder och stillestånd 1249 - 1814 (Hargshamn: Arete, 1997) Collection of peace treaties and armistices in which Sweden was involved

F3.2 General Andersen, R. C., Naval Wars in the Baltic, 1522-1850 (London: Francis Edwards Ltd., Reprinted 1969).

Artéus, Gunnar, and Thomas Roth, A Brief History of the Swedish Armed Forces (Stockholm: Swedish National Defence College [Försvarshögskolan], 2003).

Attman, Artur, The Struggle for Baltic Markets: Powers in Conflict 1558-1618 (Acta Regiae Societatis Scientiarum et Litterarum Gothoburgensis. Humaniora 14. Gothenburg: Kungl. Vetenskaps- och Vitterhets-Samhället, 1979).

Auge, Oliver, Handlungsspielräume fürstlicher Politik im Mittelalter: Der südliche Ostseeraum von der Mitte des 12. Jahrhunderts bis in die frühe Reformationszeit (Mittelalter-Forschungen Bd. 28. Ostfildern: J. Thorbecke, 2009).

Ayre, Michael, The Scottish Community in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, 1630-1750 (Vilna: Humanitas, 2019).

Backlund, Janne, Rusthållarna i Fellingsbro 1684-1748: Indelningsverket och den sociala differentieringen av det Svenska agrarsamhället (Studia historica Upsaliensia 173, 1993).

Bandara, Pesala. ‘Mary, Queen of Scots' Aquatic Entertainments for the Wedding of John Fleming, Fifth Lord Fleming to Elizabeth Ross, May 1562’. In Margaret Shewring and Linda Briggs (eds.), Waterborne

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Pageants and Festivities in the Renaissance: Essays in Honour of J.R. Mulryne (Farnham, Surrey, Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2013), pp.199-209. Includes an argument how Mary staged this event for the Swedish ambassador to convince him of the naval power of Scotland.

Boggis-Rolfe, Caroline, The Baltic Story. A thousand-year history of its lands, sea and peoples (Stroud: Amberley, 2019)

Bogucka, Maria, ‘Merchants’ Profits in Gdańsk Foreign Trade in the First Half of the 17th Century’, Acta Poloniae Historica, 22 (1971), 73-90.

Bogucka, Maria, ‘Amsterdam and the Baltic in the First Half of the XVII Century’, The Economic History Review, Second Series, 26 No 3 (1973), 433-47.

Bogucka, Maria, ‘Les bourgeois et les investissem*nts culturels: L’exemple de Gdańsk au XVIe et XVIIe siècles’, Revue Historique, 259 (1978), 429–40. ‘Key article by one of the leading historians of early modern Poland. Considers cultural investments by leading Gdansk citizens.’

Bogucka, Maria, ‘Saltpeter Production and Saltpeter Trade between Gdansk and Amsterdam in the First Half of the Seventeenth Century,’ in W.G. Heeres (ed.), From Dunkirk to Danzig. Shipping and Trade in the North Sea and the Baltic (Amsterdam, 1988), pp.167-170.

Bogucka, Maria, ‘Dutch Merchants’ Activities in Gdansk in the First Half of the XVIIth Century’, in J.Ph. S. Lemmink and J.S.A.M. van Koningsbrugge, Baltic Affairs. Relations Between the Netherlands and North-Eastern Europe 1500-1800 (Nijmegen: INOS, 1990), pp.19-32.

Bogucka, Maria, ‘Trade between Gdańsk and Turku (Åbo) in the 16th and First Half of the 17th Century’, Acta Poloniae Historica, 67 (1993), pp.141–7. ‘Highlights the replacement of Gdansk as the major trading link between Finland and the West during the early modern period by merchants from Lübeck and the Netherlands.’

Christensen, A.E., Dutch Trade to the Baltic about 1600 (Copenhagen/The Hague, 1941)

Cieślak, Edmund, ‘Amsterdam als Bankier von Gdansk im 18. Jahrhundert’, in The Interactions of Amsterdam and Antwerp with the Baltic Region, 1400-1800 (Leiden: Nijhoff, 1983), pp.123-31.

Cieślak, Edmund, and Jozef Rumiński, Les rapports des résidents français à Gdansk au XVIIIème siècle 2 vols. (Gdansk, 1964–8). ‘These two volumes cover the years 1715–1721 and contain the reports of the French residents in Gdansk (Danzig at that time). Useful for first-hand information on commerce and politics in the Baltic theater at the end of the Great Northern War.’

Danaher, K. (ed.), The Danish Force in Ireland, 1690-1691 (Dublin, 1962). A study of the Danish troops in Ireland, the first example of foreign troops being hired by the British state for service in Britain itself, and their contribution to the defeat of Jacobite forces.

Degn, Ole (ed.) The Sound Toll at Elsinore. Politics, Shipping and the Collection of Duties 1429-1857(Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press, 2017)

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Revised and translated edition of 2010 Danish book; includes standard articles to the Sound Toll and everything surrounding it as well as an impressive bibliography

Englund, Peter, The Battle That Shook Europe: Poltava and the Birth of the Russian Empire (London: I.B. Tauris, 2003) Mostly a detailed description of the battle but has also analysis of more general matters.

Evans, Chris and Göran Rydén, Baltic Iron in the Atlantic World in the Eighteenth Century (Leiden: Brill, 2007) Standard work on the Baltic iron trade

Feldbaek, Ole, ‘Eighteenth-century Danish neutraility: Its diplomacy, economics and law’, Scandianvian Journal of History, 8 (1983), 3-21

Fedorowicz, J. K., England's Baltic Trade in the Early Seventeenth Century: A Study in Anglo-Polish Commercial Diplomacy. Cambridge studies in economic history. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1980).

Fiedler, Beate-Christine, and Christine van den Heuvel (eds.), Friedensordnung und machtpolitische Rivalitäten: Die schwedischen Besitzungen in Niedersachsen im europäischen Kontext zwischen 1648 und 1721 (Veröffentlichungen des Niedersächsichen Landesarchivs 3. Göttingen: Wallstein, 2019).

Florén, Anders, Disciplinering och konflikt: Den sociala organiseringen av arbetet Jäders bruk 1640-1750(Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis 147. Uppsala, Stockholm, Uppsala universitet: Academia Ubsaliensis; Distributor Almqvist & Wiksell International, 1987).

Forssberg, Anna Maria, The Story of War: Church and Propaganda in France and Sweden 1610-1710(Lund: Nordic Academic Press, 2016).

Frantzen, Ole Louis, and Knud J. V. Jespersen, eds. Danmarks Krigshistorie 1, 700-1814 (With the assistance of Kurt V. Jensen and Gunner Lind. Copenhagen: Gads Forlag, 2008). Textbook, richly illustrated. Great introduction to Danish military history.

Frost, Robert I., The Northern Wars 1558-1721: War, State and Society in Northeastern Europe, 1558-1721 (Harlow, Essex: Longman, 2000).

Glete, Jan, Swedish Naval Administration, 1521-1721: Resource Flows and Organisational Capabilities. The Northern World 46 (Leiden, Boston: Brill, 2010) In general, everything by Jan Glete is of interest for the Baltic case study, but especially this book really combines his decades of work on the Swedish military system, including much more than “just” the navy but also Swedish military organisation, weapon production, international systems, other navies, and so on.

Häpke, Rudolf, Die Regierung Karl V. und der europäische Norden (Hildesheim: Olms, 1976)

Hamilton, V. et al., Namnlistor över officerskårerna vid svenska s.k. männingsregementen till häst och ståndsdragoner under stora nordiska kriget (Stockholm: Kungliga Boktryckeriet, 1915) List of names of officers of the Swedish regiments in the Great Northern War, separated after regiments, incl. rank and basic information on aristocratic rank, employment, imprisonment, home coming etc. for threeman, fivemen,

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and dragoon regiments from Uppland, Västgöta, Skåne, Åbo, Gotland, Österbotten, Finland, Livonia, Estonia, Ösel, and Ingermanland

Harrison Lindbergh, Katarina, Nordiska sjuårskriget 1563 till 1570 (Lund: Historiska Media, 2020)

Helland-Hansen, Kjeld, Bergens sjøfart under den spanske arvefølgekrig (1702-1710) (Bergen: Beyer, 1940) Analysis of Bergen’s port during the Spanish War of Succession, and as a connection to France, Spain, Portugal, Holland, and the Baltic area. Includes also North Atlantic (Greenland) seafare, and finally a list of ships in Bergen.

Hildebrand, Karl-Gustaf, Swedish Iron in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries: Export Industry Before the Industrialization (Jernkontorets bergshistoriska skriftserie 29., 1992).

Höglund, Lars-Eric, and Åke Sallnäs, The Great Northern War 1700-1721: Colours and Uniforms (Karlstad: Acedia Press, 2000)

Jensen, Frede P., Danmarks konflikt med Sverige 1563-1570 (Skrifter udgivet af Det Historiske Institut ved Københavns Universitet 12. Copenhagen, 1982).

Jörgensen, Christer, The Anglo-Swedish Alliance Against Napoleonic France (Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004)

Kirchner, W. ‘Deutsch-russische Wirtschaftsbeziehungen im 17. Jahrhundert’, VSWG, 76 (1989), 153-84.

Knauer, Martin, and Sven Tode, (eds). Der Krieg vor den Toren: Hamburg im Dreißigjährigen Krieg, 1618-1648 (Hamburg: Verein für Hamburgische Geschichte, 2000)

Kouri, E.I.; Olesen, Jens E., The Cambridge History of Scandinavia, 1520-1870 (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2016) Extensive standard work on Scandinavia, incl. discussions of the military, economic, and political developments

Kreem, Juhan, ‘The business of war: Mercenary market and organisation in Reval in the fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries’, Scandianvian Economic History Review, 49 (2001), 26-42

Lavery, Jason Edward, Germany's Northern Challenge: The Holy Roman Empire and the Scandinavian Struggle for the Baltic, 1563-1576. Studies in Central European histories (Boston, Mass., Leiden: Brill, 2002)

Lind, Gunner, Haeren og magten i Danmark, 1614-1662 (Odense: Odense Universitetsforlag, 1994) Lind’s doctoral thesis on the organisation of the Danish army, the interdependences between army and government, and esp. the Danish military political culture. Incl. a comprehensive list on the Danish officers.

Lind, Gunner, Early Military Industry in Denmark-Norway, 1500-1814, Scandinavian Journal of History38, 4 (2013), 405-421 Overview over the production of war materials (excluding textiles), and the context of this industry within the Danish-Norwegian rule.

Erik Lindberg, ’Club Goods and Inefficient Institutions: Why Danzig and Lübeck Failed in the Early Modern Period’, Economic History Review, Second Series, LXII, 3 (2009), 604-628

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Lindegren, Jan, Utskrivning och utsugning: Produktion och reproduktion i Bygdeå 1620-1640 (Studia historica Upsaliensia 117. Uppsala, Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell, 1980).

Lindegren, Jan, The Swedish ‘military state’, 1560-1720, Scandinavian Journal of History 10, 4 (1985), 305-336.

Linnarsson, Magnus, ‘The development of the Swedish post office, c.1600-1718’, in Heiko Droste (ed.), Connecting the Baltic Area. The Swedish Postal System in the Seventeenth Century (Huddinge: Södertörns högskola, 2011), pp.25-47

Lockhart, Paul Douglas, Frederik II and the Protestant Cause: Denmark's Role in the Wars of Religion, 1559-1596. The Northern World 10 (Leiden, Boston: Brill, 2004)

Loew, Peter Oliver, ‘Danzig und Venedig, in Trauer vereint: Ein Städtevergleich als Beitrag zur lokalen Mentalitätsgeschichte (16. bis 20. Jahrhundert)’, Zeitschrift für Ostmitteleuropaforschung, 51 (2002), 159–187. ‘Examines the use of Venice as a model for 16th-century Danzig. Chronicles local regret for the latter’s decline in modern times.’

Marklund, A., ‘The manly sacrifice: Martial manliness and patriotic martyrdom in Nordic propaganda during the Great Northern War’, Gender and History, 25 (2013), 150-69

Müller, Leos, The Merchant Houses of Stockholm, c.1640-1800: A Comparative Study of Early-Modern Entrepreneurial Behaviour (Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis. Studia historica Upsaliensia, Uppsala: S. Academiae Ubsaliensis, 1998).

Neuding Skoog, Martin, I rikets tjänst: Krig, stat och samhälle i Sverige 1450-1550 (Stockholm: Bokförlaget Augusti, 2018).

Noldus, Badeloch, ‘Dealings in politics and art: Agent between Amsterdam, Stockholm and Copenhagen’, Scandinavian Journal of History, 28 (2003), 215-25

North, Michael, The Baltic. A History (Cambridge, Mass., London: Harvard UP, 2015) Updated version of German edition “Geschichte der Ostsee” (Munich: Beck, 2011), general history of the Baltic as a region

Oakley, Stewart P. “War in the Baltic, 1550-1790.” In The Origins of War in Early Modern Europe. Edited by Jeremy Black, 52–71 (Edingburgh: Donald, 1987) General overview on the role of the Baltic and the Baltic powers in (European) international relations, trade, and military warfare. Oakley argues that the Baltic rarely influenced (Western) European affairs and vice versa, except for the extensive trade with grain and naval stores.

Oakley, Stewart P. War and Peace in the Baltic, 1560-1790. War in Context (London, New York: Routledge, 1992)

Odén, Birgitta, Kopparhandel och statsmonopol: Studier i Svensk handelshistoria under senare 1500-Talet. Kungl. Vitterhets Historie och Antikvitets Akademiens Handlingar. Historiska Serien 5. (Lund: Almqvist & Wiksell, 1960).

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Oldach, Robert, Stadt und Festung Stralsund: Die schwedische Militärpräsenz in Schwedisch-Pommern 1721-1807. Quellen und Studien aus den Landesarchiven Mecklenburg-Vorpommerns 20 (Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2018)

Olden-Jørgensen, Sebastian, Svenskekrigene. 100 danmarkshistorier (Aarhus: Universitetsforlaget, 2018)

Perlestam, Magnus, Det lilla kriget. Skärmytslingar och kommenderingar under stora nordiska kriget åren 1702-1709 (Lund: Nordic Academic Press, 2018)

Persson, Roland, Rustningar i Sverige under det stora nordiska kriget. Studier rörande makten över krigsfinansieringen i det karolinska samhället 1700-1709 (Lund: Wallin & Dalholm, 1975) Analysis of the financial politics and decision making regarding armor and further equipment of the Swedish armies between 1700 and 1709

Querengässer, Alexander, Das kursächsische Militär im Großen Nordischen Krieg 1700–1717. Krieg in der Geschichte 107 (Paderborn: Schöningh, 2018)

Roberts, Michael, The Swedish Imperial Experience, 1560-1718 (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1979)

Roberts, Michael, The Early Vasas: A History of Sweden, 1523-1611 (New York: Cambridge UP, 1968) Still the go-to-study for 16th century Sweden

Roberts, Michael, Sweden’s Age of Greatness, 1632-1718 (London: Macmillan, 1973)

Roberts, Michael, British diplomacy and Swedish politics, 1758-1773 (London: Macmillan, 1980)

Roberts, Michael, Gustavus Adolphus: A History of Sweden, 1611-1632. 2 vols. (New York: Longmans, 1953)

Rydén, Göran (ed.), Sweden in the Eighteenth-Century World: Provincial Cosmopolitans (Farnham, Surrey, England, Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2013).

Rystad, Göran; Böhme, Klaus-R; Carlgren, Wilhelm M., The Baltic in Power Politics 1500-1990 (Lund, 1994)

Saarinen, Hannes, Bürgerstadt und absoluter Kriegsherr: Danzig und Karl XII. im Nordischen Krieg. Studia historica 55 (Helsinki: Suomen Historiallinen Seura, 1996)

Samsonowicz, H., Untersuchungen über das Danziger Bürgerkapital in der zweiten Hälfte des 15. Jahrhunderts (Weimar, 1969)

Sandström, Åke. Mellan Torneå och Amsterdam: En undersökning av Stockholms roll som förmedlare av varor i regional- och utrikeshandel 1600-1650. Stockholmsmonografier 102. Stockholm: Stockholms stad, 1990.

Schildhauer, J., ‘Zur Verlagerung des See- und Handelsverkehrs im nordeuropäischen Raum während des 15. und 16. Jahrhunderts’, JbWG, (1968), Heft 4, 192-206

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Schildhauer, J., ‘Der Seehandel Danzig im 16. Jahrhundert und die Verlagerung des Warenverkehrs im nord- und mitteleuropäischen Raum’, JbWG, (1970), Heft 3, 155-78

Talvitie, Petri and Juha-Matti Granqvist (eds.), Civilians and Militaty Supply in Early Modern Finland (Helsinki 2021)

Tandrup, Leo, Mod triumf eller tragedie: En politisk-diplomatisk studie over forløbet af den Dansk-Svenske magtkamp fra Kalmarkrigen til Kejserkrigen med særligt henblik på formuleringen af den Svenske og især den Danske politik i tiden fra 1617 og især fra 1621 til 1625. 2 vols. (Aarhus: Universitetsforlaget, 1979)

Thum, W., Die Rekrutierung der Sächsischen Armee unter August dem Starken (1694-1733) (Leipzig, 1912).

Tidander, L.G.T. Nordiska Sjuårskrigets Historia (Västervik: C.O. Ekblad & Comp., 1892)

Tidander, L.G.T., Kriget mellan Sverge och Ryssland åren 1555-1557 (Vesterås: A. F. Bergh, 1888)

Tidander, L.G.T., Slaget vid Axtorna den 20 Oktober 1565 (Halmstad: Erik Johanssons Boktryckeri, 1888)

Tielhof, Milja van, The ‘Mother of All Trades’: The Baltic Grain Trade in Amsterdam from the late 16th to the early 19th Century (Leiden: Brill, 2002)

Tuchtenhagen, Ralph: Zentralstaat und Provinz im frühneuzeitlichen Nordosteuropa (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2008) Study of the integration within Sweden and Russia resp. of the Baltic provinces, focus on Eastern Baltic Sea

Ullgren, Peter, Det Stora Nordiska Kriget 1700-1721: En Berättelse Om Stormakten Sveriges Fall(Stockholm: Prisma, 2008).

van Nieuwenhuize, Hielke, Niederländische Seefahrer in schwedischen Diensten: Seeschifffahrt und Technologietransfer im 17. Jahrhundert. Wirtschafts- und Sozialhistorische Studien 21 (Cologne: Böhlau, 2021)

Veluwenkamp, Jan Willem, and W. Scheltjens (eds.), The Baltic in European Maritime History (Leiden, 2018)

Veluwenkamp, Jan Willem, and W. Scheltjens (eds.), Early Modern Shipping and Trade: Novel Approaches Using Sound Toll Registers Online (Leiden: Brill, 2018)

Wade, Mara Renée. “Waterfront Entertainments in Saxony and Denmark from 1548-1709.” In Waterborne Pageants and Festivities in the Renaissance: Essays in Honour of J.R. Mulryne. Edited by Margaret Shewring and Linda Briggs, 329–58. European Festival Studies: 1450-1700 (Farnham, Surrey, Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2013) Includes a discussion of fireworks and expertise knowledge about the use of weaponry.

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Winton, Patrik, ‘The political economy of Swedish absolutism 1789-1809’, European Review of Economic History, 16 (2012), 430-48

Winton, Patrik, ‘Politics of debt, war and peace: Scandinavia 1800-1830’, Scandinavian Journal of History, 38 (2013), 458-79

Zernack, Klaus, Nordosteuropa. Skizzen und Beiträge zu einer Geschichte der Ostseeländer (Lüneburg, 1993) One of the influential books discussing the Baltic region as region, and in the context of Europe

Zins, Henryk, England and the Baltic in the Elizabethan Era (Manchester: Manchester UP, 1972)

Zirr, Alexander, Axel Oxenstierna - Schwedens Reichskanzler während des Dreißigjährigen Krieges: Studien zu seiner Innen- und Außenpolitik. Historische Studien 3. Politische, Verfassungs- und Verwaltungsgeschichte. (Leipzig: Meine, 2008).

Zirr, Alexander, Die Schweden in Leipzig: Die Besetzung der Stadt im Dreißigjährigen Krieg (1642-1650). Quellen und Forschungen zur Geschichte der Stadt Leipzig 14. (Leipzig: Leipziger Universitätsverlag, 2017).

Zoellner, K.-P., ‘Seehandel und Handelspolitik der Hanse in der Zeit ihres Niedergangs (1550-1600)’, JbWG, (1970), Heft 3, 221-38.

F4. Geneva and the Swiss Confederacy

F4.1 Archival Sources

Switzerland

Archives d’Etat de Genève (AEG)

3e Section: Politique Extérieure

Cote France, includes correspondence of ambassadors 1687-8, 1726-98

Cote Affaires étrangères (AE), includes extracts from the Conseils register 1535-1772, treaties

1186-1725 (AE9-19 NB not in chronological order)

5e Section: Administration Publique

Registres du conseil – minutes digitised and available online

Banques: covers individual banks 1798-1982 – mostly later period

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Habitation: foreigners living in Geneva

Fond Charles Senebier: A Genevan in French military service 1702-63

NB other private papers

France

Archives des Affaires étrangères, La Courneuve, Paris (AAE)

Correspondance politique: Genève, Suisse, Grisons, Savoie-Sardaigne

Mémoires et documents: Suisse, Genève, Fonds France

Archives nationales, Paris (AN)

Series G7: correspondence of the contrôleurs-genéral des finances.

Bibliothèque nationale de France, Paris (BnF)

Extensive range of documents in the Archives et manuscrits department, mostly concerning

French negotiations in the Confederation and Geneva in the years between the 1590s and the

1630s.

Service historique de la Défense, Château de Vincennes, Paris (SHD)

Series A1: various files contain the correspondence of French recruiters in Switzerland in the

Louisquatorzian era (particularly Stoppa).

Sous-séries XG: Suisses au service de la France, XVIIe-XIXe siècles

Italy

Archivio di Stato di Torino

Primarily in the Lettere ministri and Negoziazioni con i Svizzeri series.

United Kingdom

National Archives

State Papers Foreign, Switzerland (SP 96): letters from British envoys in Bern and Geneva, 1582-

1782.

Foreign Office, Switzerland (FO 74): letters from above, 1782-present

British Library

Much material in Blenheim Papers concerning Geneva, Switzerland, Savoie, in WoSS.

F4.2 Printed primary sources

The diary (1689–1719) and accounts (1704–1717) of Élie Bouhéreau. Edited by: Marie Léoutre, Jane McKee, Jean-Paul Pittion & Amy Prendergast (Irish Manuscripts Commission, 2019).

Barthélemy, François. Papiers de Barthélemy, ambassadeur de France en Suisse, 1792-1797, publiés sous les auspices de la Commission des archives diplomatiques par Alexandre Tausserat-Radel (1886).

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Bishop Burnet’s travels through France, Italy, Germany, and Switzerland, etc.

Correspondance des contrôleurs généraux des finances avec les intendants des Provinces. Tome premier, 1683 à 1699 / publ. par ordre du Ministre des finances, d'après les documents conservés aux Archives nationales, par A. M. de Boislisle, (.... 1874-97).

Colladon, Esaie, Journal d’Esaie Colladon: mémoires sur Genève 1600–1605 (Geneva, 1883).

Correspondance de Roland Dupré: Second Résident de France a Geneve, 1680-1688.

D’Ivernois, François, Tableau historique et politique des révolutions de Genève dans le dix-huitième siècle (Geneva: Vaney, 1850).

Documents sur l’Escalade de Genève tirés des archives de Simancas, Turin, Milan, Rome, Paris et Londres (Geneva: Société d’histoire et d’archéologie de Genève, 1903).

Factums judiciaires genevois (Geneva: Société d’histoire et d’archéologie de Genève, 1988).

Flournoy, Jacques, Journal, 1675-1692 (published in Geneva by Librarie Droz, 1994).

Histoire de la miraculeuse delivrance envoyée de Dieu à la Ville de Geneve (Geneva, 1603)

A perticuler and true narration of that great and gratious deliuerance, that it pleased God of late to vouchsafe vnto the cittie of Geneva: namely vpon the. xij. of December last in the yeere 1602 (London, 1603).

Charles François d’Iberville. Résident de France à Genève. Correspondance 1688-1690. Introduction, édition critique et notes par Laurence Vial-Bergon, tome 1 décembre 1688-décembre 1689, tome II janvier 1690-décembre 1690. Publications de l'association suisse pour l'histoire du Refuge Huguenot.

Le livre du recteur de l’Académie de Genève (1559-1878), ed. S. Stelling-Michaud (Geneva: Droz, 6 vols. 1959-1980).

Leti, Gregorio, The Present state of Geneva: with a brief description of that city ... (London, 1681).

Lettres de Louvois à Louis XIV: 1679-1691: politique, guerre et fortification au grand siècle, edited by Thierry Sarmant and Nicole Salat.

Papiers et correspondance de Pompone Ier de Bellièvre. (1566-1607). XIV Lettres adressées pour la plupart à Bellièvre, principalement pendant les années 1574 et 1575, et relatives notamment aux affaires de Suisse et de Pologne et aux finances; en outre, quelques pièces diverses. (1571-1579).

Papiers de Barthélemy, ambassadeur de France en Suisse, 1792-1797, publiés sous les auspices de la Commission des archives diplomatiques par Alexandre Tausserat-Radel (1886).

Reboulet, Paul, Voyage de Suisse: relation historique contenue en douze lettres (The Hague, 1686).

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Inventaire sommaire des documents relatifs à l’histoire de Suisse, ed. Edouard Rott, 5 vols., 1886-1894

Spon, Jacob, Histoire de la ville et de l'estat de Genève, depuis les premiers siècles de la fondation de la ville jusqu'à présent (Utrecht, 1685).

Stanyan, Abraham, An Account of Switzerland written in the year 1714 (Edinburgh, 1716).

Lettre de Monsieur le général de St. Saphorin écrite à Monsieur le comte de Marsay à Genève, le 21 octobre en 1734.

Copie d'une lettre escritte à ... Monseigneur le prince de Salm: le 7. novembre 1708 = Copia eines Schreibens an ... den Fürsten von Salm nacher Wien: Sub dato den 7. November 1708 erlassen.

The Travels of Francis Tallents in France and Switzerland, 1671-1673, ed. Janice V. Cox (HS, new ser. 5, 2011)

Teissier, Antoine, The History of the negotiation between the Duke of Savoy and the Protestant cantons of Switzerland (London, 1690).

A collection of the state papers of John Thurloe, etc.

Memoire signifié pour Estienne Tourton et Consors, enfans et heritiers de Siméon Tourton, bourgeois de Lyon, qui était héritier, de Barthelemy Tourton... Contre Jeanne-Catherine Vernet, fille de Theophile Vernet .. (1761).

F4.3 Secondary Sources Geneva: political, social, financial

Revue de l’histoire des religions, 232 (2015): special issue: Genève, refuge et migrations (xvie-xviie siècles). Essays by Natalie Zemon Davis, Nicolas Fornerod, Monica Martinat, and Daniela Solfaroli Camillocci.

Amstad, Richard, ‘Des conceptions monétaires et bancaires en France et de la pratique des banques à Lyon de 1660 à 1720’ (PhD dissertation, Basel, 1949).

Babel, Antony, Histoire économique de Geneva, Switzerland: des origines au début du XVIesiècle (2 vols. Geneva: A. Jullien, 1963). ‘More than a simple economic history, this work is an encyclopedia of a large spectrum of human activities from prehistory to the end of the Middle Ages. Considerable space is given to trade, financial activities, crafts, agriculture, and commercial routes. Especially helpful as a reference work.’

Barat, Raphaël, « Ce qui se passe quand on a l’impression qu’il ne se passe rien : les élections des syndics de la République de Genève à la fin du XVIIe siècle », in Revue historique, 684, 2017 :4, pp.803-18.

Bergier, Jean-François, Genève et l’économie européenne de la Renaissance (Paris: S.E.V.P.E.N., 1963).

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‘A classic study of the late medieval international fairs of Geneva. Argues that, during the first half of the 15th century, Geneva was one of the most important financial centers in Europe. Her vitality was strictly linked with the Italian economy and in particular with the presence of Milanese and Tuscan merchant-bankers.’

Brandli, Fabrice, Une résidence en République: le résident de France à Genève et son rôle face aux troubles politiques de 1734 à 1768 (Geneva: Librarie Droz, 2005).

Brandli, Fabrice, ‘La république de Genève et la France au XVIIIe siècle: diplomatie asymétrique et cultures politiques’, in Revue d’histoire moderne & contemporaine, 61:4 (2014), pp.64-93.

Brandli, Fabrice, “Le personnel diplomatique de la résidence de France à Genève: profil social et culture politique (1679-1798)”, in Revue Etudes de lettres (special issue: Le diplomate en question XVe-XVIIIe siècles), 286:3 (2010), pp.217-244.

Brandli, Fabrice, ‘Le résident de France à Genève (1679-1798): institution et pratiques de la diplomatie’, in Dix-huitième siècle, 37 (2005): Politiques et cultures des Lumières, pp. 49-68

Bruening, Michael W., ‘Francophone territories allied to the Swiss Confederation’, in Amy Nelson Burnett and Emidio Campi (eds.), A Companion to the Swiss Reformation (Leiden: Brill, 2016), pp.362-388.

Bruscoli, Francesco Guidi, “Tessuti di seta fra la penisola italiana e l’Oltralpe nel Rinascimento”, in Laura Dal Prà, Marina Carmignani, Paolo Peri (eds.), Fili d’oro e dipinti di seta. Velluti e ricami tra Gotico e Rinascimento (Trento: Castello del Buonconsiglio. Monumenti e collezioni provinciali, 2019).

Caesar, Mathieu, Le pouvoir en ville. Gestion urbaine et pratiques politiques à Genève (fin XIIIe-début XVIe siècles).

Caesar, Mathieu, Histoire de Genève, t. 1: La cité des évêques (IVe-XVIe siècle)

Caesar, Mathieu, ‘The Prince and the factions: rebellion and political propaganda in sixteenth-century Geneva’, in Factional Struggles. Divided Elites in European Cities and Courts (1400–1750), ed. Mathieu Caesar, Leiden, Brill, 2017, pp.104-121.

Caesar, Mathieu, “Popular assemblies, document usage and the writing of history in Geneva (1450-1550)”, in La participation politique dans les villes du Rhin supérieur à la fin du Moyen Âge / Politische Partizipation in spätmittelalterlichen Städten am Oberrhein, éd. Olivier Richard, Gabriel Zeilinger, Berlin, Erich Schmidt, 2017, p. 127-147.

Caesar, Mathieu, “Vertus civiques et cléricalisation des élites à Genève (XVe début XVIe siècle) », in Religion et pouvoir. Ordre social et discipline morale dans les villes de l’espace suisse (XIVe-XVIIIe s.), éd. avec Marco Schnyder, Neuchâtel, Alphil, 2014, pp.75-91.

Caesar, Mathieu, « Dépenser en ville. La cour de Savoie à Genève au XVe siècle », dans La cour et les villes dans l’Europe du Moyen Âge et des Temps Modernes XIVe-XVIe siècle, Turnhout, Brepols (Studies in European Urban History (1100-1800), 2015, p. 197-211.

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Carpanetto, Dino, Divisi dalla fede. Frontiere religiose, modelli politici, identita storiche nelle relazione tra Torino e Ginevra (XVII-XVIII secolo) (Turin, 2009).

Carpanetto, Dino, ‘I Regni e la Repubblica. Relazioni e negoziazioni tra Parigi, Torino e Ginevra nel XVIII secolo’, in Renzo Sabbatini and Paola Volpini (eds.), Sulla diplomazia in età moderna: politica, economia, religione (Milan: FrancoAngeli, 2011), pp.77-100.

Cassandro, Michele, Il libro giallo di Ginevra della compagnia fiorentina di Antonio Della Casa e Simone Guadagni 1453–1454 (Prato, 1976). ‘Edition of an account book from one of the most important Tuscan companies active in Geneva around the middle of the 15th century. The historical introduction provides good background and is a useful overview of the functioning of the complex Genevan financial market.’

Choisy, Eugène, L’Etat chrétien calviniste à Genève au temps de Théodore de Bèze (Geneva: 1902).

Cicchini, Marco, “Milices bourgeoises et garde soldée à Genève au XVIIIe siècle. Le républicanisme classique à l'épreuve du maintien de l'ordre”, in Revue d’histoire moderne & contemporaine, 61:2 (2014), pp.120-149.

Claeys, Thierry, Dictionnaire biographique des financiers en France au xviiie siècle (2 vols., Paris: SPM, 2009).

Cordaz, André, Pierre Fatio, précurseur et martyr de la démocratie genevoise, 1662-1707 (Geneva, 1923).

Cramer, Lucien, and Dufour, Alain, La Seigneurie de Genève et la Maison de Savoie de 1559 à 1593. T. IV, La guerre de 1589-1593 (Geneva: Jullien, 1958).

Dubuis, Paule Hochuli, “La lutte du Petit Conseil genevois pour la reconnaissance de ses droits territoriaux en 1536-1537,” Bulletin de la Société d’histoire et d’archéologie de Genève 28 (1998)

Du Bois Melly, Charles, Les moeurs genevoise de 1700 à 1760 (Geneva and Basel: 1882).

Dufour, Alfred. Histoire de Genève (5th ed. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 2014)

Dufour, Alain, La guerre de 1589-1593 (Geneva: 1958).

Fatio, Olivier, ‘Genève et les Vaudois entre 1686 et 1689’, in Albert de Lange (ed.), Dall'Europa alle Valli valdesi: Atti del XXIX Convegno storico internazionale: «Il Glorioso Rimpatrio (1686-1989. Contesto - significato - immagine». Torre Pellice (To), 3-7 settembre 1989 (Turin: Collana della Società di Studi Valdesi, 1990), pp.97-113.

Fatio, Olivier, et al (eds.), Genève au temps de la révocation de l’édit de Nantes (1680-1705) (Paris: Champion, 1985).

Fatio, Olivier, and Béatrice Nicollier, Comprendre l’Escalade: essai de géopolitique genevoise (Geneva: 2002).

Fatio, Olivier, and Fatio, Nicole, Pierre Fatio et la crise de 1707 (Geneva: Labor et Fides, 2007).

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Favre, Edouard, Combourgeois: Genève-Fribourg-Berne, 1526: récit historique (Société d'histoire et d'archéologie de Genève, 1926).

Fehleison, Jill, Boundaries of Faith: Catholicism and Protestantism in the Diocese of Geneva (Kirksville: 2010).

--- ‘L’Escalade of 1602: History, Myth and Commemoration’, in Swiss American Historical Review, 49:1 (2013), pp. 20–30.

Gagnebin, “Les conséquences diplomatiques de l’Escalade et le Traité de Saint-Julien,” in: Geisendorf et al.

Galiffe, Jean Barthélemy, Notices biographiques sur les familles génevoises (Geneva: 1857-1892).

Gascon, R., Grand commerce et vie urbaine à Lyon au XVIe siècle. Lyon et ses marchands (environs de 1520 - environs de 1580) (Paris, 1971).

Gautier, Jean-Antoine, Histoire de Genéve des origines à l’année 1691 (Geneva, 1903).

Golay, Quand le peuple devint roi: mouvement populaire, politique et révolution à Genève de 1789 à 1794 (Geneva: Slatkine, 2001)

– « 1792-1798. Révolution genevoise et Révolution française. Similitudes et contrastes » in Louis Binz (ed.), Regards sur la Révolution genevoise, 1792-1798 (Geneva: Société d’histoire et d’archéologie, 1992)

Gordon, Bruce, Calvin (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2009).

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Anderson, Olive, ‘Loans versus taxes: British financial policy in the Crimean War’, Economic History Review 16 (1963), 314-27

Anderson, Olive, ‘Great Britain and the beginnings of Ottoman public debt, 1854-44’, Historical Journal 7 (1964), 47-63

Anderson, Olive, ‘The Russian Loan of 1855: an example of economic liberalism?’, Economica 27 (1960), 368-71

Ashworth, W. J. ‘"System of Terror": Samuel Bentham, Accountability and Dockyard Reform During the Napoleonic Wars’, Social History 23 (1998), pp. 63-79 Examines the Benthamite or Utilitarian reforms introduced by Jeremy Bentham’s brother as inspector of dockyards after 1800 in an attempt to stamp out corruption and inefficiency.

Ashworth, W. J., Customs and Excise: Trade, Production and Consumption in England 1640-1845 (Oxford, 2003).

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Synthesises recent work on indirect taxation in Britain and analyses its impact on the British economy, arguing in particular that the growing need to measure and quantify the production of goods so that they could be taxed facilitated economic development and industrialisation.

Austin, P., Baring Brothers and the birth of modern finance (London, 2015) A study of Baring Brothers as merchant bankers, including their role in floating loans for a wide variety of Latin American and European regimes after 1815, and the financial mechanicsms and networks which allowed them to do so effectively.

Aylmer, G. E., The State's Servants: The Civil Service of the English Republic, 1649-1660 (London, 1973). A study of the bureaucracy of the English Republic and Protectorate during the initial period of state formation, arguing that on the one hand there were continuities in recruitment and practice with royal administration, but also key instances of change.

Aylmer, G. E. ‘From Office-Holding to Civil Service: The Genesis of Modern Bureaucracy’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 5th ser. 30 (1980), pp. 91-108. Aligns the history of bureaucracy in Britain with Weberian studies of the shift from charismatic to bureaucratic authority during the modern period, arguing that these shifts began to occur in English in the mid-seventeenth century.

Aylmer, G. E., The Crown's Servants: Government and the Civil Service under Charles II, 1660-1685(Oxford, 2002). A study of the growth of bureaucracy after 1660, arguing that despite rejecting the political legacy of the English Republic and Protectorate, the Restoration regime kept many of the bureaucratic revenue, military and naval structures created in the 1850s.

Bailey, De Witt, British Board of Ordnance Small Arms Contractors 1689-1840 (Rhyl: W.S. Curits, 1999)

Bailey, de Witt, ‘The Board of Ordnance and small arms supply: the Ordnance system, 1714-1783’ (Unpublished PhD thesis, KCL, 1988)

Baer, Friederike, ‘The decision to hire German troops in the War of American Independence: reactions in Britain and North America, 1774-1776’, Early American Studies 13 (2015), 111-50.

Baker, N., Government and Contractors: The British Treasury and War Supplies, 1775-1783 (London, 1971). Examines the supply of provisions to British armies in North America during the American Revolutionary War, arguing that the British state was relatively effective at managing contractors, who were constrained more by economic and financial circ*mstances than by corruption or inefficiency.

Baker, N. ‘The Treasury and Open Contracting, 1778-1782’, Historical Journal 15, no. 3 (1972), 433-454. A study of Treasury contracting procedure, arguing that political pressure due to defeats in America forced the Treasury to shift from ‘closed’ contracting with a small circle of trusted contractors to ‘open’ contracting in order to obtain better terms.

Banner, S., Anglo-American Securities Regulation: Cultural and Political Roots, 1690-1860 (Cambridge, 1998). Examines the growth of legal systems for regulating the trade in stocks and shares, including government debt, during the financial revolution in Britain after 1690, and its evolution as the scope of financial activity expanded during the eighteenth century.

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Bannerman, G., Merchants and the Military in Eighteenth-Century Britain: British Army Contracts and Domestic Supply, 1739-1763 (London, 2008). A study of army contracting in the mid-eighteenth century, focussed mainly on the mundane but vital contracts for provisions and forage for horses in Britain. Using a prosopographical study of contractors, agues that the system of ‘closed’ contracting was relatively effective and contracts went to established contractors who had proved their competence, rather than being used for political patronage and corruption.

Bannerman, G. ‘The "Nabob of the North": Sir Lawrence Dundas as Government Contractor’, Historical Research 83, no. 219 (2010), 102-123. A case study of British army provisions contracting during the Jacobite campaigns in Scotland of 1745-6, showing that Dundas made extensive use of his commercial networks in the region to enable Cumberland’s army to remain supplied.

Bartlett, T. ‘From Irish State to British Empire: Reflections on State Building in Ireland, 1690-1830’, Etudes Irlandaises 20 (n.s.) (1995), 15-57. Examines the position of Ireland within the British state during the eighteenth century, and the development of local institutions to manage and support the Irish army in its functions of internal and external defence of the Protestant Ascendancy.

Bartle, G.F., ‘Bowring and the Greek Loans of 1824 and 1825’, Balkan Studies iii (1962) pp. 61-74

Baster, Albert, ‘The origins of British banking expansion in the Near East’, Economic History Review 5 (1934), 76-86

Baugh, D. A., British Naval Administration in the Age of Walpole (Princeton, 1965) An important study of the entire scope of British naval administration between 1720 and 1748, including the dockyards and victualling establishments at home and overseas, arguing that most problems arose and were solved by the funding available.

Baugh, D. A. ‘Great Britain's “Blue-Water” Policy 1689-1815’, International History Review 10 (1988), pp. 33-58. Examines the assumptions behind Britain’s tendency for most of the eighteenth century to build up the navy and fight colonial wars rather than devote resources to military campaigns in Europe, arguing that it reflected political prejudices about the army.

Baugh, D.A., ‘Withdrawing from Europe: Anglo-French maritime geopolitics, 1750-1800’, International History Review 20 (1998), 1-32

Baxter, S. B., The Development of the Treasury, 1660-1702 (London, 1957). Surveys the bureaucratic and administrative development of the British Treasury during the Restoration and the first stages of the ‘Second Hundred Years War’, arguing that it developed largely in response to the financial demands of warfare.

Beckett, J. V. ‘Land Tax Administration at the Local Level 1693-1798’, in M. Turner and D. R. Mills eds., Land and Property: The English Land Tax 1692-1832, (New York, 1986), pp. 161-179. Examines how the land tax, Britain’s main direct tax, was administered during the eighteenth century, arguing that its structure allowed for negotiations between the state and local interests, reducing resistance to collection and increasing its yield.

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Beerbühl, Margrit Schulte, The Forgotten Majority: German Merchants in London, Naturalization and Global Trade, 1660-1815 (Oxford, 2015: Berghahn) An extensive economic and social history of German merchants in London and their commercial and cultural connections with Germany, particularly major commercial centres such as Hamburg. Also including their investment in the British national debt.

Behagg, Clive, ‘Mass production without the factory: craft producers, guns and small firm innovation, 1790-1815’, Business History 40 (1998), 1-15

Bent, Mike, ‘British steamer involvement in the Portuguese Civil War, 1828-1834’, International Journal of Maritime History 31 (2019), 634-45

Binney, J. E. D., British Public Finance and Administration 1774-92 (Oxford, 1958) A comprehensive and wide-ranging survey of the British fiscal-military state during the prelude, progress and aftermath of the American Revolutionary War, based mainly on Parliamentary reports. Argues that it was reasonably effective at mobilising resources but constrained by political factors, such as a degree of corruption.

Black, Iain S., ‘Money, information and space: banking in early-nineteenth century England and Wales’, Journal of Historical Geography 21 (1995), 398-412

Bowen, H. V., War and British Society, 1688-1815, New Studies in Economic and Social History(Cambridge, 1998). A short book which surveys the impact of war on British society during the ‘Second Hundred Years War’, arguing that it helped to promote industrialisation and social change.

Bowen, H.V., ‘The East India Company and military recruitment in Britain, 1763-71’, Historical Research59 (1986), 78-90

Bowler, R. A., Logistics and the Failure of the British Army in America, 1775-1783 (Princeton, NJ, 1975). A study of the commissariat and logistical administration of the British army in North America, pointing out the immense practical challenges of supplying provisions to British forces there and the reliance on Irish provisions contractors, and arguing that the Treasury managed this about as effectively as it could have done.

Brezis, Elise S., ‘Foreign capital flows in the century of Britain’s industrial revolution: new estimates, controlled conjectures’, Economic History Review 48 (1995), 46-67

Buckley, R. N., The British Army in the West Indies: Society and the Military in the Revolutionary Age(Gainesville, FL, 1998). Comprehensive social and administrative study of the British army in the West Indies, emphasising in particular the adaptions necessary for the tropical climate and slave society, and efforts to address the high mortality rate through better medical care.

Braddick, Michael, ‘An English Military Revolution?’, Historical Journal, 36 (1993), 965-975. Reviews the evidence for a ‘military revolution’ in England in the seventeenth century.

Braddick, M., The Nerves of State: Taxation and the Financing of the English State, 1558-1714(Manchester, 1996).

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Synthesises and summarises the literature on taxation in England from the late Tudors to the late Stuarts, demonstrating the importance of the English Republic and Protectorate in sweeping away mediaeval systems and bringing in more efficient methods.

Braddick, M., State Formation in Early Modern England, C. 1550-1700 (Cambridge, 2000). A comprehensive survey of state formation under Elizabeth and the Stuarts, covering not only taxation and warfare but also social and religious policy. Argues that in many cases, state formation represented not so much the creation of new institutions but the absorption of existing methods into explicitly ‘royal’ rather than private

control.

Brewer, J., The Sinews of Power: War, Money and the English State, 1688-1783 (London, 1989). The landmark study of state formation in Britain during the eighteenth century, which pioneered the concept of the fiscal-military state. Based theoretically on the work of Michael Mann and Max Weber, and empirically on a study of the excise administration, it also argues for the importance of politics and parliament in legitimising the taxation that supported the creation of the national debt, and contests the existing scholarship arguing that Britain possessed a relatively weak state compared with absolutist France or Prussia.

Brinkmann, C. ‘Charles II and the Bishop of Munster in the Anglo-Dutch War of 1665-6’, English Historical Review 21 (1906), 686-98

Brooks, C. ‘Public Finance and Political Stability: The Administration of the Land Tax, 1688-1720’, Historical Journal 17, no. 2 (1974), 281-300. Examines the early years of land tax administration in southern England, and argues that its structure provided opportunities for local interests to negotiate compromises with the central state, facilitating acceptance of it.

Brooks, C. ‘Interest, Patronage and Professionalism: John, 1st Baron Ashburnham, Hastings, and the Revenue Service’, Southern History 9 (1987), 51-70. A study of the excise service in Sussex during the early eighteenth century, arguing that despite its bureaucratic character there were still opportunities for patronage and private interests that potentially undermined its effectiveness and impartiality.

Browning, Reed, ‘The Duke of Newcastle and the financing of the Seven Years’ War’, Journal of Economic History 31 (1971), 344-77

Bruce, A. P. C., The Purchase System in the British Army, 1660-1871, Royal Historical Society Studies in History (London, 1980). Examines the system of venality which allowed British army officers to purchase military rank, showing how it was valued as a system which maintained the political reliability of the officer corps, until the military inefficiencies it introduced became too serious to overlook.

Buchet, C., The British Navy, Economy and Society in the Seven Years War (Woodbridge, 2013). A study translated from the French doctoral thesis of naval victualling and contracting during the Seven Years War, arguing that the British state relied heavily on markets at home and abroad to support its projection of power.

Burton, I. F. ‘The Secretary at War and the Administration of the Army During the War of the Spanish Succession’, University of London, 1960). Examines the administration of the British army during the early eighteenth century, in particular the evolution of the office of Secretary at War from secretary to the Commander in Chief to an independent official in his own right.

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Caputo, Sara, ‘Alien seamen in the British navy, British law, and the British state, c. 1793-c. 1815’, Historical Journal 62 (2019), 685-707

Carlos, A.M., and Larry Neal, ‘Amsterdam and London as financial centres in the eighteenth century’, Financial History Review, 18 (2011), 21-46

Carruthers, B.G., City of Capital: Politics and Markets in the English Financial Revolution (Princeton, 1996) Argues that political partisanship influenced patterns of financial investment during the ‘financial revolution’ circa 1690 to 1720, with Whigs favouring the Bank of England and New East India Company and Tories the Land Bank, Old East India Company and the South Sea Company. It has since been argued that he overstates the extent of this difference, and that many investors were guided more by financial returns than political loyalty.

Chandaman, C. D., The English Public Revenue, 1660-1688 (Oxford, 1975). A detailed reconstruction of English taxation under the Restoration, showing how the innovations of the English Republic and Protectorate were preserved and developed by successive officials, contributing to the increased yield and reliability of the Crown’s income.

Chatziioannou, Maria, ‘War, crisis and sovereign loans: the Greek War of Independence and British economic expansion in the 1820s’, The Historical Review/La Revue Historique 10 (2013) pp. 33-56

Chew, Emrys, Arming the periphery: the arms trade in the Indian Ocean during the age of global empire(London, 2012)

Childs, J., The Army of Charles II (London, 1976). Childs, J., The Army, James II, and the Glorious Revolution (Manchester, 1980). Childs, J., The British Army of William Iii, 1689-1702 (Manchester, 1987). Three detailed studies of the evolution of the British army (including its Scottish and Irish components) between 1660 and 1702, including the continuities with the army of the Protectorate and the political and social impact of its transition into a standing force.

Childs, J, ‘The British Brigade in France, 1672-1678’, History 69 (1984) pp. 384-97

Childs, J., The Nine Years' War and the British Army 1688-1697: The Operations in the Low Countries(Manchester, 1991). A detailed study of British army operations overseas during the Nine Years War, with details on logistics and administration.

Clapham, J. H., The Bank of England: A History (Cambridge, 1945). This remains the standard history of the Bank of England, from its formation in 1694 up to 1945. Provides a broad survey of key incidents, including its role in the management of the national debt and British currency, and the development of the British banking system.

Clark, Dorothy, ‘Edward Backwell as a royal agent’, Economic History Review 9 (1938) pp. 45-55

Clark, G.N. ‘War trade and trade war, 1701-1713’ Economic History Review 1 (1928) pp. 262-80

Clark, Geoffrey, ‘Insurance as an instrument of war in the 18th century’, in Geneva Papers on Risk and Insurance: issues and practice 29 (2004) pp. 247-57

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co*ckroft, Wayne, The archaeology of gunpowder and military explosives manufacture (Liverpool, 2000) ch. 2 ‘The royal factories, 1759-1850’ pp. 30-66

Clay, C. G. A., Public Finance and Private Wealth: The Career of Sir Stephen Fox, 1627-1716 (Oxford, 1978). Examines the career of Sir Stephen Fox, Paymaster-General of the army in the 1670s and 1680s, and the importance of informal financial intermediation in supporting military credit.

Coffman, D. M., Excise Taxation and the Origins of Public Debt (London, 2013). An important study tracking the evolution of the excise tax from its introduction by Parliamentary forces in 1643 to support the war against the king, its continuation after 1660 by Charles II, and its developing role in supporting the growth of the national debt.

Cole, Gareth, Arming the Royal Navy, 1793-1815: The Office of Ordnance and the State (London: Pickering and Chatto, 2012) A study of the interaction between the Ordnance Office and the Royal Navy in the supply of the key war materials of gunpowder, cannon and ammunition, focussing mainly on the efforts of the Office to improve their quality through scientific research and better administration.

Coleby, A. M., Central Government and the Localities: Hampshire, 1649-1689, Cambridge Studies in Early Modern British History. (Cambridge, 1987). Examines the impact of the growing British fiscal-military state at a local level, as one of the few regional studies of its impact. Argues that local elites supported the revenue or militia where it aligned with their own interests, but otherwise frequently failed to cooperate.

Conway, S., The British Isles and the War of American Independence (Oxford, 2000). Examines the impact of the American Revolutionary War (1775-83) on British politics, society and economy, and the efforts of the British state to mobilise these resources for use in North America.

Conway, S., War, State, and Society in Mid-Eighteenth-Century Britain and Ireland (Oxford: New York, 2006). A study of British state formation during the Seven Years War (1756-63), showing how British military and naval successes reflected the strength of its economy and political system, which enabled the state to tap into its resources.

Cookson, J. E., The British Armed Nation, 1793-1815 (Oxford, 1997). Examines the militia and other volunteer forces in Britain (including Scotland and Ireland) during the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, arguing that the British state was successful in mobilising up to a quarter of British adult men for its defence.

Cope, S. R., Walter Boyd, a Merchant Banker in the Age of Napoleon (Gloucester, 1983). A study of the financial mechanisms behind the British national debt in the 1790s, in particular the banking syndicates with whom the Treasury contracted to raise debts, and the challenges as well as the rewards which they offered.

Corrigan, P. and Sayer, D., The Great Arch: English State Formation as Cultural Revolution (Oxford, 1986). A Marxist reading of state formation in Britain from mediaeval to modern times, arguing that it reflected a growing need among elites to control society, which justified the creation of institutions for this purpose.

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Crouzet, F. ‘The Huguenots and the English Financial Revolution’, in P. L. R. Higonnet, D. S. Landes and H. Rosovsky (eds.), Favorites of Fortune: Technology, Growth, and Economic Development since the Industrial Revolution, (London, 1991), pp. 221-266. Examines the role of the Huguenots in the English financial revolution, arguing that they played a minor but important role as investors or channels for investment.

Crimmin, P.K., ‘Searching for British naval stores: sources and strategy c. 1802-1860’, The Great Circle 18 (1996), 113-24

Danaher, K. (ed.), The Danish Force in Ireland, 1690-1691 (Dublin, 1962). A study of the Danish troops in Ireland, the first example of foreign troops being hired by the British state for service in Britain itself, and their contribution to the defeat of Jacobite forces.

Dawson, F. G., The First Latin American Debt Crisis: The City of London and the 1822-25 Loan Bubble(New Haven, 1990). Examines the emergence of the City of London as a financial centre for floating South American debt in the 1820s, the development of financial structures to facilitate this, and the financial crisis that resulted when these structures fialed to regulate speculation.

Desan, C., Making Money: Coin, Currency, and the Coming of Capitalism, First edition. edn, 2014). Examines the intellectual, ideological and practical development of the British financial revolution, emphasising in particular the continued political interventions by the British state in the construction of London’s financial institutions.

Davey, James, The Transformation of British Naval Stategy: Seapower and Supply in northern Europe, 1808-1812 (Rochester, NY: Boydell, 2012) Arises out of the ‘contractor-state’ project of Knight and Wilcox (see below), but offers a detailed case study of its successful operation during the Baltic campaign in the later stages of the Napoleonic war, examining not only the Victualling Board but also its interaction with the Transport Board, and the role of the Admiralty in coordinating their efforts for greater efficiency.

Davies, J. D., Gentlemen and Tarpaulins: The Officers and Men of the Restoration Navy, Oxford Historical Monographs (Oxford, 1991). Examines the tensions within the English navy after 1660, when professional officers or ‘tarpaulins’ clashed with royalist appointees, raising wider issues about the balance of political reliability and professional skill in military forces.

Dickson, P. G. M., The Financial Revolution in England: A Study in the Development of Public Credit, 1688-1756 (London, 1967). The definitive study of England’s ‘financial revolution’ in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth century, offering detailed examinations of the growth of national debt instruments and the markets for trading them, as well as the networks and brokers that emerged around them. Refined in points of detail by later work, but still the primary reference for all studies of English finance before 1756.

Dietz, V. E. ‘The Politics of Whiskey: Scottish Distillers, the Excise and the Pittite State’, Journal of British Studies 36, no. 1 (1997), 35-69. A study of the difficulties of revenue administration even in the late eighteenth century at the height of British fiscal-miltiary power, pointing out how Scottish distillers used their remoteness from British authority to circumvent strict excise taxation.

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Donagan, B, War in England, 1642-9 (Oxford, 2008) Detailed study of military culture and thought during the English Civil War, including the role of honour and discipline, and the continued importance of civilian standards of conduct and loyalty in moderating military practices based on European experiences.

Dziennik, Matthew, The fatal land: war, empire and the Highland soldier in british America (Yale University Pres: New Haven, CT, 2015) Examines the recruitment of Highland soldiers for the British army in the mid-eighteenth century, arguing that the army continued to rely on clan chiefs as intermediaries, resulting in the incorporation of clan social structures and cultures into army regiments.

Eagly, R.V. and V.K. Smith, ‘Domestic and international integration of the London money market, 1731-1789’, The Journal of Economic History, 36 (1976), 198-216.

Edwards, Ifor, ‘John Wilkinson and the development of gunfounding in the late eighteenth century’, Welsh Historical Review 15 (1991) pp. 524-44

Edwards, John Richard, ‘Accounting for fair competition between private and public sector armaments manufacturers in Victorian Britain, Abacus 51 (2015)

Ehrman, J., The Navy in the War of William III, 1689-1697: Its State and Direction (Cambridge, 1953). Comprehensive study of naval warfare and administration in the 1690s, arguing that both were stretched by the unprecedented demands of warfare during this period, and that this process led to changes that supported eighteenth century naval power.

Emsley, Clive, British society and the French Wars, 1793-1815 (London, 1979)

Falkner, J., Marlborough’s War Machine 1702-1711 (Barnsley, 2014).

Ferguson, N., The house of Rothschild: money’s prophets, 1789-1849 (London, 1998) Definitive study of the Rothschilds; this volume covers their origins in Germany, the spread of their financial networks across Europe, and their rise to prominence as contractors to the British state during the Napoleonic War and as financial intermediaries for European nations on the British financial markets after 1815.

Ferguson, N., The cash nexus: money and power in the modern world, 1700-2000 (London, 2002) Sweeping study of finance across the world, but based ultimately on a study of bond prices in London (and later in New York) as both a reflection and cause of money’s impact on the wider world, by driving processes such as military intervention.

Flandreau, Marc, ‘Sovereign states, bondholders committees and the London Stock Exchange in the nineteenth century (1827-68): new facts and old fictions’, Oxford Review of Economic Policy 29 (2013), 668-96

Flandreau, Marc, and Flores, Juan H., ‘The peaceful conspiracy: bond markets and international relations during the pax britannica’, International Organization 66 (2012), 211-41

Fleischmann, Richard K. and Parker, Lee D., ‘Managerial accounting early in the British industrial revolution: the Carron Company, a case study’, in Accounting and Business Research 20 (1990), 211-21

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Francis, A. D., The First Peninsular War, 1702-1713 (London, 1975). A detailed study of the Spanish and Portuguese theatres of the War of the Spanish Succession, highlighting in particular the nature of coalition warfare.

Fries, Russell, ‘British response to the American system: the case of the small-arms industry after 1850’, Technology and Culture 16 (1975), 377-403

Frykman, Niklas, ‘Seamen on late eighteenth-century European warships’, International Review of Social History 54 (2009), 67-93

Games, Alison, The Web of Empire: English Cosmopolitans in an Age of Expansion, 1560-1660 (Oxford: OUP, 2008) A key text in the historiography of the early British Empire, focussing on the importance of individuals in the construction of imperial power and the networks that facilitated this.

Garnham, N., The Militia in Eighteenth-Century Ireland: In Defence of the Protestant Interest(Woodbridge, 2012). Studies the development of the militia in Ireland during the eighteenth century, showing how it initially served to defend the Protestant Ascendancy against the Catholic Irish, but gradually turned into a political force that pressed for Irish autonomy in the 1780s.

Gauci, Perry, Emporium of the World: The Merchants of London 1660-1800 (London: Bllomsbury, 2007) Studies the economic, social and institutional context in which British merchants operated during the era of mercantilism and the rise of empire, including the operation of key London commercial institutions such as the Royal Exchange and other mercantile markets.

Gauci, Perry, The Politics of Trade: The Overseas Merchant in State and Society (Oxford, 2001) A study of the activities of English merchants as interest groups and lobbyists during the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, and the challenges and opportunities that this offered for the development of colonial trade and the imperial mercantilist system.

Gilbert, A. N. ‘Law and Honour among Eighteenth-Century British Army Officers’, Historical Journal, 19 (1976), 75-87. A study of military culture among army officers in the eighteenth century, arguing that it was fundamental to their professional and personal identity.

Glover, R. G., Peninsular Preparation: The Reform of the British Army, 1795-1809 (Cambridge, 1963). Examines the changes carried out within the British army before Wellington’s campaigns, and how these supported its effectiveness. Argues in particular for the positive impact of the Duke of York as Commander in Chief.

Graham, Aaron, Corruption, Party and Government in Britain, 1702-13 (OUP, 2015) Examines military finance during the War of the Spanish Succession and the political and financial networks which underlay it, arguing that bureaucratic state formation was supplemented by informal networks of political and personal allegiance that coordinated their actions, but which looked from the outside like corruption.

Graham, A. ‘Auditing Leviathan: Corruption and State Formation in Early Eighteenth Century Britain’, English Historical Review 128, no. 533 (2013), 806-38.

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A study of corruption, auditing, accounting and military finance during the War of the Spanish Succession, showing how officials were able to circumvent rules to act in ways which looked corrupt, but were sometimes vital for the effectiveness of the army.

Graham, A. ‘Public Service and Private Profit: British Fiscal-Military Entrepreneurship Overseas, 1707-12’, in J. Fynn-Paul ed., War, Entrepreneurs and the State in Europe and the Mediterranean, 1300-1800, (Leiden, 2014), pp. 87-110. Examines a chain of military finance connecting a garrison in Spain with British officials in Portugal and London, arguing that entrepreneurship among agents led them to introduce their own funds into the system in return for a rake-off from payments.

Graham, A. ‘Military Contractors and the Money Markets, 1700-15’, in A. Graham and P. Walsh eds., The British Fiscal-Military States, 1660-C. 1783, (London, 2016), pp. 83-112. Uses legal records to reconstruct the commercial and financial networks in London during the early eighteenth century which enabled contractors to raise funds on British government financial instruments such as clothing warrants, and the limits of this sytem.

Graham, Aaron, ‘The War of the Spanish Succession, the Financial Revolution, and the Imperial Loans of 1706 and 1710’, in M. Pohlig and M. Schaich eds., The War of the Spanish Succession: New Perspectives, (Oxford, 2018). Studies how loans were raised in London for Habsburg forces in 1706 and 1710, through a network of British financiers and diplomats, and the various political and commercial negotiations which took place to uphold the financial reputation of the Imperial regime.

Graham, A. and Walsh, P., eds., The British Fiscal-Military States, 1660-C.1783 (London, 2016). An edited volume of essays on aspects of fiscal-military state formation in the British Isles during the eighteenth century, pointing out local variations and the limits of bureaucratic reform. With a retrospective by John Brewer on The Sinews of Power.

Gruber von Arni, E., Hospital Care and the British Standing Army, 1660-1714, History of Medicine in Context (Aldershot, 2006). Detailed study of the administration and practice of military medicine and hospital care during the wars of the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, with a focus not only on domestic medicine but also the challenges of overseas medical care.

Gunn, S., Grummitt, D. and Cools, H., War, State, and Society in England and the Netherlands 1477-1559(Oxford, 2007). Comprehensive and ambitious survey and comparison of warfare and state formation in England and the Netherlands in the sixteenth century.

Guy, A. J. ‘Regimental Agency in the British Standing Army, 1715-1763; a Study in Georgian Military Administration (Part I)’, Bulletin of the John Rylands Library 52 (1979-80), pp. 423-453.

Guy, A. J. ‘Regimental Agency in the British Standing Army, 1715-1763; a Study in Georgian Military Administration (Part Ii)’, Bulletin of the John Rylands Library 53 (1980-1), pp. 31-57.

Detailed studies of regimental agency during the eighteenth century, highlighting the administrative and financial roles of major agents such as John Calcraft, and how their efforts enabled the British state to operate with only minimal formal bureaucracy.

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Guy, A. J., Oeconomy and Discipline: Officership and Administration in the British Army 1714-63(Manchester, 1985).

A comprehensive and deeply-informed study of military administration during the mid-eighteenth century and its impact on the military effectiveness of the British army and its officer corps, stressing in particular how the complex nature of the system required officers and officials to adopt work-arounds to meet its demands.

Hall, F. G., The Bank of Ireland, 1783-1946 (Dublin, 1949). Still the standard reference on the Bank of Ireland, founded in 1783, including a study of its role in the management of Ireland’s national debt in the 1780s and 1790s.

Harling, P., The Waning Of "Old Corruption": The Politics of Economical Reform in Britain, 1779-1846(Oxford, 1996). A wide-ranging study of corruption and the campaigns for reform of the British fiscal-military state during the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, and its dismantling after 1815 in the light of new political ideas and administrative programmes.

Hart, S., and J. McCusker, ‘The rate of exchange on Amsterdam on London, 1590-1660’, The Journal of European Economic History, 8, no.3 (1979), 689-705.

Hattendorf, J. B., England in the War of the Spanish Succession: A Study of the English View and Conduct of Grand Strategy, 1702-1712 (New York, 1987). Detailed study of English diplomatic and military strategy during the War of the Spanish Succession.

Helleiner, K. F., The Imperial Loans: A Study in Financial and Diplomatic History (Oxford, 1965). A complex but erudite study of the various loans and subsidies advanced by Britain to the Habsburg regime in the 1790s, highlighting the interplay of financial and diplomatic forces in their negotiation.

Hodgkinson, Jeremy S., ‘The decline of the ordnance trade in the Weald: the Seven Years War and its aftermath’, Sussex Archaeological Collections 134 (1996), 155-67

Hoon, E. E., The Organization of the English Customs System, 1696-1786 (Newton Abbot, 1968). Detailed administrative history of the English cutoms system before the reforms of the 1780s, highlighting how parallel administrative arrangements developed in the eighteenth century to circumvent mediaeval structures and meet the demands of war.

Hope-Jones, A., Income Tax in the Napoleonic Wars, Cambridge Studies in Economic History (Cambridge, 1939). Examines the politics and administration of the income tax, introduced by Pitt in the 1790s to support the war effort, and highlighting in particular the continuities with the earlier land tax through the use of unpaid local commissioners to administer assessment, thereby making it more politically acceptable.

Hoppit, Julian, ‘Financial Crises in Eighteenth-Century England’, Economic History Review 39, no. 1 (1986), 39-58. Survey of financial crisis in England in the eighteenth century, arguing that until the late eighteenth century their economic impact has been overstated, since early financial institutions were only monetising a small proportion of the overall national economy.

Hoppit, Julian, ‘Attitudes to credit in Britain, 1680-1790’, Historical Journal, 33 (1990), 305-22

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Horsefield, J. K., British Monetary Experiments, 1650-1710 (Cambridge, MA, 1960). Comprehensive survey of the development of financial and monetary structures during the late seventeenth century, emphasising the overwhelming importance of warfare and financial pressure in the creation of schemes such as the Bank of England.

Houlding, J. A., Fit for Service: The Training of the British Army, 1715-1795 (Oxford, 1981). Detailed examination of the training and day-to-day duties of the British army during the eighteenth century, emphasising how its various other commitments, such as revenue policing or riot control, meant that it was invariably broken up into small units. As a result, officers and men lacked experienced in large-scale military manouveres.

Hughes, E., Studies in Administration and Finance, 1558-1825: With Special Reference to the History of Salt Taxation in England (Philadelphia, 1980). A dense but comprehensive examination of the excise system in eighteenth century Britain, through a study of the overlapping salt taxation scheme. Emphasis in particular the political limits on state capacity, when lobbying by interest groups forced the Treasury to overrule the excise system and allow concession.

Hunt, M. R. ‘Women and the Fiscal-Imperial State in Late Seventeenth- and Early Eighteenth-Century London’, in K. Wilson ed., A New Imperial History: Culture, Identity and Modernity in Britain and the Empire, 1660-1840, (Cambridge, 2004), pp. 29-47. Examines the interaction of sailors’ wives with the British fiscal-military system in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth century, as petitioners for relief and holders of wage tickets from their husbands.

Hutchinson, Ranghild, ‘The Norwegian and Baltic timber trade to Britain 1780-1835 and its interconnections’, Scandinavian Journal of History 37 (2012), 578-99

Israel, Jonathan, ‘The Amsterdam Stock Exchange and the Enlgish Revolution of 1688’, Tijdschrift voor Geschiedenis, 103 (1990), 412-18

Jacobsen, G. A., William Blathwayt: A Late Seventeenth Century English Administrator, Yale Historical Publications: Miscellany (Oxford, 1932). Detailed biography of a quintessential bureaucrat in the Restoration and Willimite regime, with responsibility for military and colonial affairs. Emphasises the role of patronage and private networks in his effectiveness, and thus the limits of bureaucracy.

John, A.H., ‘War and the English economy, 1700-63’, Economic History Review 7 (1955) pp. 329-44

Jones, D. W., War and Economy in the Age of William III and Marlborough (Oxford, 1988). Detailed strudy of the economic bases of British warfare in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, arguing that British armies in Europe relied on the ebb and flow of Britian’s balance of payments with Europe, which were negative in the 1690s but positive in the 1700s, affecting the extent of supply.

Jones, George Hilton, ‘The recall of the British from the Dutch service’, Historical Journal 25 (1982), 423-35

Jones, Philip Dwight, ‘The British army in the age of Reform, 1830-1854’ (Unpublished PhD thesis, Duke University, 1968)

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Joslin, David, ‘London bankers in wartime 1739-64’, in L.S. Pressnell (ed.), Studies in the Industrial Revolution (London: Athlone, 1960), pp.156-76.

Kaplan, H. H., Nathan Mayer Rothschild and the Creation of a Dynasty: The Critical Years 1806-1816(Stanford, 2006). Examines Rothschild as a contractor for remitting money to Wellington’s armies in the Iberian Peninsular during his campaigns, arguing that Rothschild (in collaboration with Sir Charles Herries and the Treasury) was able to use private networks to find the cash to support British military finance.

Kelly, C., War and the Militarization of British Army Medicine, 1793-1830 (London, 2011).

Examines the development of the military medical profession during the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars and argues that the experience of warfare led to the creation of a professional identity that helped break down divisions in the wider medical profession.

Kennedy, Catriona (ed), Narratives of the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars: military and civilian experience in Britain and Ireland (London, 2013)

Kiernan, T. J., History of the Financial Administration of Ireland to 1817 (London, 1930). Dense but comprehensive study of financial administration in Ireland, focussing largely on the eighteenth century and detailing the adaptions necessary as spending on Irish regiments increased.

King, W. T. C., History of the London Discount Market (London, 2nd edn, 1972). Complex but important study of the operation of the London financial market from the late eighteenth century, including the role of discounting houses in providing liquidity for private and public borrowing, and the Bank of England as a lender of last resort.

Kleer, R. ‘"Fictitious Cash": English Public Finances and Paper Money, 1689-97’, in C. McGrath and C. Fauske eds., Money, Power and Print: Interdisciplinary Studies on the Financial Revolution in the British Isles, (Newark, DE, 2008), pp. 70-103. Examines the creation of paper money by the Bank of England in the early stages of the financial revolution, as a reponse to the financial pressures generated by warfare during the Nine Years War.

Kleer, R. ‘A New Species of Money': British Exchequer Bills, 1707-1711’, Financial History Review 22, no. 2 (2015), 179-203. A study of the revival of Exchequer Bills in 1707 to meet the financial needs of warfare, and the system of contracting by the Bank of England which encouraged their circulation, with the aim of both funding the war and increasing the money supply.

Kleer, R., Money, Politics and Power: Banking and Public Finance in Wartime England, 1694-1696(London, 2017). A detailed study of public finance during the crucial phases of the early English financial revolution between the formation of the Bank of England in 1694 and the development of the Exchequer Bill system in 1696, due to the failure of the project for a land bank.

Knight, R. J. B., Britain against Napoleon: The Organisation of Victory, 1793-1815, 2013). Synthetic overview of the British war effort during the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, emphasising the unprecedented mobilisation of British resources to meet the demand for finance and military power, thanks to the strength of the British state.

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Knight, R. J. B. and Wilcox, M., Sustaining the Fleet, 1793-1815: War, the British Navy and the Contractor State (Woodbridge, 2010). Comprehensive study of naval victualling during the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, arguing that the Victualling Board relied heavily on British and overseas contractors for resources such as flour, beef and pork, and in colonial and provincial ports employed contractors to meet all of the needs of naval victualling.

Knights, M. ‘Samuel Pepys and Corruption’, Parliamentary History 33, no. 1 (2014), pp. 19-35. A study of Samuel Pepys and naval corruption in the Restoration, arguing that Pepys felt that he was not

corrupted by accepting gifts from contractors because he did not feel that this affected the decisions he made about which tenders should be accepted.

Kofas, J., Financial relations of Greece and the Great Powers, 1832-1862 (London, 1981) Emphasises the importance of British and French loans during the Greek War of Independence, and the political and diplomatic issues which surrounded them, involving negotiations through supporters of Greek independence in London and Paris.

Kynaston, David, The City of London: vol. 1, A world of its own, 1815-90 (London, 1994) Comprehensive survey of the post-1815 development of the City of London as the leading European financial centre, though drawing heavily on secondary literature and focussed more on the end than the beginning of the period.

Kynaston, David, Till time’s last sand: a history of the Bank of England, 1694-2013 (London, 2017) Extensive study of the development of the Bank of England, though largely focussed on the late nineteenth century

onwards, and lacking scholarly apparatus.

Lambert, Andrew, ‘Preparing for the long peace: the reconstruction of the Royal Navy, 1815-1830’, Mariner’s Mirror 82 (1996), 41-54

Langeluddecke, H. ‘“the Chiefest Strength and Glory of This Kingdom”: Arming and Training The "Perfect Militia" In the 1630s’, English Historical Review 118, no. 479 (2003), 1264-1303. Examination of efforts by Charles I to overhaul the militia system during the 1630s in response to changing military tactics and practices, especially the experience of war overseas, and to create a force more reliably under Crown control.

Levandis, John A., Greek foreign debt and the Great Powers, 1821-1898 (New York, 1944) Uses foreign debt and sovereign borrowing to draw out a wider study of politics and diplomacy in nineteenth century Europe, arguing that for the Great Powers such lending often served as an extension of diplomatic policy.

Liedtke, Rainer, ‘Agents for the Rothschilds: a nineteenth-century information network’, European History Yearbook 16 (2016), 33-46

Linch, Kevin, Britain and Wellington’s army: recruitment, society and tradition, 1807-15 (London, 2011)

Lincoln, Margarette, Trading in War: London’s Maritime World in the Age of Cook and Nelson (New Haven: Yale, 2018)

Little, H. M. ‘The Treasury, the Commissariat and the Supply of the Combined Army in Germany During the Seven Years War (1756-1763)’, University of London, 1981).

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Comprehensive study of military logistics and contracting in Europe during the Seven Years War, focussing on the administrative and financial problems of supplying provisions to allied armies using local contractors.

Lopez-Morell, Miguel A., The house of Rothschild in Spain, 1812-1941 (Farnham, 2013)

Macdonald, J., The British Navy's Victualling Board, 1793-1815: Management Competence and Incompetence (Woodbridge, 2010). Study of the administrative and bureaucratic management of the Victualling Board during the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, arguing that in general the Board was able to cope with crises but had less success solving ‘systemic’ problems of inefficiency.

Malcolmson, A. P. W., Nathaniel Clements: Government and the Governing Elite in Ireland, 1725-75(Dublin, 2005). Uses a biographical study of National Clements, Vice-Treasurer of Ireland in the mid-eighteenth century, to assess the operation of the Irish fiscal-military state during this period, including the operation of military finance and the British state.

Manning, R. B., Swordsmen: The Martial Ethos in the Three Kingdoms (Oxford, 2003). A study of military culture within British armies in the early seventeenth century and the British Civil Wars, stressing the importance of honour, duty, loyalty and discipline in the formation of professional and personal identities.

Manning, R. B., An Apprenticeship in Arms: The Origins of the British Army 1585-1702 (Oxford, 2006). General survey of the development of the British army during the seventeenth century, based mainly on secondary sources but emphasising the importance of the Civil Wars of the mid-century as a spur for the professionalization of the army and its administration.

Mathias, P. and P.K. O'Brien, ‘Taxation in Britain and France, 1715-1810: A Comparison of the Social and Economic Incidence of Taxes Collected for the Central Governments’, Journal of European Economic History, 5 (1976), 601-50. Important study comparing the incidence of taxation in Britain and France as a percentage of national income. Argues that the British state could extract showed greater volatility, ranging from 5 pct in peacetime to 20 pct in wartime, whereas the French state was less flexible and collected more in peacetime but less in wartime.

Mauskopf, Seymour H., ‘The crisis of English gunpowder in the eighteenth century’, in Klein, Ursula and Spary, E.C., Materials and expertise in early modern Europe: between market and laboratory (Chicago, 2010) pp.289-320

McCormack, M. ‘Citizenship, Nationhood, and Masculinity in the Affair of the Hanoverian Soldier, 1756’, Historical Journal 49, no. 4 (2006), 971-93 Examination of military and political culture in the mid-eighteenth century, stressing how the development of a professional standing army forced British society to reassess its views of professional soldiers versus citizen militias.

McDonnell, Ciaran, ‘A ‘fair chance’? The Catholic Irish Brigade in the British service, 1793-1798’, War in History 23 (2016), 150-68

McGrath, C. I., Ireland and Empire, 1692-1770 (London, 2012).

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Sweeping survey of the Irish fiscal-military state between the Williamite War and 1770, highlighting the growing amounts spent on the garrison, thanks to increased taxation and a system of public debt, and the investment in

military infrastructure such as barracks, in some cases several decades before comparable investments in Britain.

Melton, F. T., Sir Robert Clayton and the Origins of English Deposit Banking, 1658-1685 (Cambridge, 1986). Study of the scrivener-banker Sir Robert Clayton during the early stages of the English financial revolution, indicating the networks of credit which supported the flotations of public debt.

Michie, R. C., The London Stock Exchange: A History (Oxford, 1999). Comprehensive history of the London Stock Exchange, from the informal trading of stocks and shares from the late seventeenth century in the Royal Exchange and Exchange Alley to the formation of a formal market in the 1770s, and its later growth.

Morriss, R., Naval Power and British Culture, 1760-1850: Public Trust and Government Ideology(Aldershot, 2004). Study of the perceptions of British naval administration within British politics and the wider public, arguing that reforms were driven by growing perceptions of waste, corruption and inefficiency from the 1780s, and drew on new Benthamite ideology.

Morriss, R., The Foundations of British Maritime Ascendancy: Resources, Logistics and the State, 1755-1815 (Cambridge, 2010). Argues that the basis of British naval power from the mid-eighteenth century onwards was the quality of its bureaucratic administration, which enabled the efficient and direct mobilisation of resources rather than a reliance on inefficient contractors.

Muldrew, C., The Economy of Obligation: The Culture of Credit and Social Relations in Early Modern England (Basingstoke, 1998). Important study of credit networks in early modern England, using a series of court records regarding suits for debts. Argues that credit was generated by trust, itself a product of personal factors such as reputation that had no economic basis.

Murphy, A. L. ‘Lotteries in the 1690s: Investment or Gamble?’, Financial History Review 12, no. 2 (2005), p. 227046. Examines the development of lotteries during the early stages of the financial revolution in the 1690s, arguing that they required a period of experimentation as projectors and investors worked out the best way to manage them.

Murphy, A. L. ‘Demanding 'Credible Commitment': Public Reactions to the Failures of the Early Financial Revolution’, Economic History Review 66, no. 1 (2013), 178-197. An assessment of the theory of ‘credible commitment’ by North and Weingast in the 1690s, arguing that investors represented their demands for a credible commitment by the English state to financial prudence through the public sphere.

Murphy, Anne, The Origins of English Financial Markets: Investment and Speculation before the South Sea Bubble (Cambridge, 2012) A study in unprecedented depth of the development of British financial markets during the early stages of the ‘financial revolution’ in the 1690s and 1700s, showing how these initial financial measures were floated, and the mechanisms which underpinned British financial power.

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Murray, J. J., George I, the Baltic and the Whig Split of 1717: A Study in Diplomacy and Propaganda(London, 1969). Detailed study of politics, diplomacy and warfare at home and abroad during the Baltic Crisis of 1716 and 1718, showing how these interacted with each other to direct the projection of power by the English state.

Murtagh, H., ‘Schomberg, Ruvigny and the Huguenots in Ireland: William III's Irish War, 1689-91’, in M. Glozier and D. Onnekink eds., War, Religion and Service: Huguenot Soldiering, 1685-1713, (Aldershot, 2007), pp. 95-110. Study of Huguenots as military officers and soldiers during the Williamite War in Ireland, arguing that the played an important role in stiffening British forces there.

Nash, R.C., ‘The balance of payments and foreign capital flows in eighteenth-century England: a comment’, Economic History Review 50 (1997), 110-28

Neal, L., ‘The integration and efficiency of the London and Amsterdam stock markets in the eighteenth century’, The Journal of Economic History, 47 (1987), 97-115. Examines the degree of integration between the London and Amsterdam financial markets, using the convergence of key financial metrics such as share prices and exchange rates to argue that they were increasingly integrated in this period, facilitating the flow of money through these major financial hubs.

Neal, L., The Rise of Financial Capitalism: International Capital Markets in the Age of Reason (Cambridge, 1990). Comprehensive study of London, Amsterdam and (to some extent) Paris as financial hubs and their interaction during the eighteenth century, using metrics such as share prices and exchange rates to emphasis the growing degree of integration.

Neal, L., ‘Interpreting power and profit in economic history: a case stdy of the Seven Years War’, Journal of Economic History 37 (1977), 20-35

Neal, Larry and Quinn, S. ‘Networks of Information, Markets and Institutions in the Rise of London as a Financial Centre, 1660-1720’, Financial History Review 8, no. 1 (2001), pp. 7-26. Examines how London’s rise as a financial centre around 1700 both relied upon and reflected its status as a key node in networks of commercial and political information, which merchants and bankers relied on in their operations.

Nir, Arielli et al. ‘The Foreign Enlistment Act, international law and British politics, 1819-2014’, International History Review 38 (2016), 636-56

Norris, John T., ‘The struggle for Carron: Samuel Garbett and Charles Gascoigne’, Scottish Historical Review 37 (1958), 136-45

North, D. C. and B.R. Weingast, ‘Constitutions and Commitment: The Evolution of Institutions Governing Public Choice in 17th Century England’, Journal of Economic History 49, no. 4 (1989), pp. 803-832. Important and much-cited article arguing that the Glorious Revolution replaced royal control over public finance with parliamentary control, creating a ‘credible commitment’ which reassured investors and encouraged them to invest in British public debt.

Nye, J. V. C., War, Wine, and Taxes: The Political Economy of Anglo-French Trade, 1689-1900 (Princeton, NJ, 2007).

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Study of the intersection of commerce, politics and political economy, arguing that British trade policy with France (including customs duties and tariffs) reflected wider political and diplomatic concerns rather than merely commercial or financial aims.

O'Brien, P. ‘The Political Economy of British Taxation, 1660-1815’, Economic History Review, 2nd ser. 41 (1988), pp. 1-32. An enormously important article, arguing that the share of taxation as a percentage of British economic output rose from 5 pct in the 1690s to 10 pct for much of the eighteenth century, and 20 pct before 1815. The ability of the British state to develop effective means to mobilise such a large share of its economy was crucial to victory.

Oosterlink, Kim, et al, ‘Baring, Wellington and the resurrection of French public finances following Waterloo’, Journal of Economic History 74 (2014), 1072-1102

Onnekink, D., The Anglo-Dutch Favourite: The Career of Hans Willem Bentinck, 1st Earl of Portland (1649-1709) (Aldershot, 2007). Biographical study of Bentinck, favourite of William III and an important ally in the management of the war effort in Britain and Europe after 1689, where he acted as an intermediary between the king and British interest groups.

Ormrod, D., The Rise of Commercial Empires: England and the Netherlands in the Age of Mercantilism, 1650-1770 (Cambridge, 2003). Important study of the economic underpinnings of Dutch and then British economic supremacy, analysing their mutual interaction.

Ostwald, J. ‘The “Decisive” Battle of Ramillies, 1706: Prerequisites for Decisiveness in Early Modern Warfare’, Journal of Military History 64, no. 3 (2000), 649-77. Uses the Battle of Ramillies in 1706 to draw wider conclusions about the nature of early modern warfare, arguing in particular that battles were rarely decisive off the battlefield unless the right circ*mstances prevailed.

Outhwaite, R.B., ‘The trials of foreign borrowing: the English Crown and the Antwerp money market in the mid-sixteenth century’, Economic History Review 19 (1966), 289-305

Outhwaite, R.B., ‘Royal borrowing in the reign of Elizabeth I: the aftermath of Antwerp’, English Historical Review 86 (1971), 251-63

Philp, Mark (ed.), Resisting Napoleon: the British response to the threat of invasion, 1797-1815 (London, 2006)

Pizzoni, Giada, British Catholic Merchants in the Commercial Age 1670-1714 (Woodbridge: Boydell, 2019)

Pool, B., Navy Board Contracts, 1660-1832: Contract Administration under the Navy Board (London, 1966). Old but still useful study of Navy Board contracting during the eighteenth century, focussing on contracts for ships with private dockyards, and the process of obtaining key resources such as wood or ironworks for ships built in the royal dockyards.

Pollard, S., ‘The decline of shipbuilding on the Thames’, Economic History Review, 3 (1950), 72-89.

Pressnell, L. S., Country Banking in the Industrial Revolution (Oxford, 1956).

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An important study, still not surpassed, of the rise of country banks in England from the mid-eighteenth century onwards, showing how burgeoning connections with London enabled financiers there to invest in the British national debt.

Quinn, S. ‘Gold, Silver and the Glorious Revolution: Arbitrage between Bills of Exchange and Bullion’, Economic History Review 49 (2nd ser.) (1996), pp. 473-490. Quantitative study of the financial impact of the Nine Years War on foreign exchange operations, as they were destabilised by taxation and overseas remittances for the benefit of the armies in Europe.

Quinn, S. ‘Goldsmith Banking: Mutual Acceptance and Inter-Banker Clearing in Restoration London’, Explorations in Economic History 34 (1997), pp. 411-432. Examination of note-clearing by goldsmith-bankers after 1660, a vital stage in the development of a system of paper money, and subsequently adopted by the Bank of England after its formation in 1694.

Quinn, S. ‘The Glorious Revolution's Effect on English Private Finance: A Microhistory, 1680-1705’, Journal of Economic History 61 (2001), pp. 593-615. Tests the credible commitment hypothesis to see whether the Glorious Revolution and the new political regime

had an impact on rates of interest. Finds that there was no immediate change, but a slow decline in interest rates over the medium term.

Rabinowicz, O. K., Tapiero, J. K. and Rabb, T. K., Sir Solomon De Medina (London, 1974). Biographical study of Sir Solomon de Medina, one of the most important provisions contractors of the 1690s. Contains a certain amount of information about his wider commercial networks in Europe, both Jewish and non-Jewish, and his financial investments in support of the credit of the British government.

Redgrave, Toby, ‘Wellington’s logistical arrangements in the Peninsular War, 1809-1814’ (Unpublished PhD thesis, KCL, 1979)

Reitan, E. A., Politics, Finance, and the People: Economical Reform in England in the Age of the American Revolution, 1770-92 (Basingstoke, 2007). Examines the process of Economical Reform in Britain during the 1780s, emphasising the political pressure which lay behind demands for reform and the elimination of corruption, and the negotiations which enabled limited reforms by 1792.

Robertson, J., The Scottish Enlightenment and the Militia Issue (Edinburgh, 1985). Examines the intellectual and ideological history of the militia in Scotland from the late seventeenth century to the late eighteenth century, and how it shaped changing ideas about the military during the Scottish Enlightenment.

Rodger, N. A. M., The Wooden World: An Anatomy of the Georgian Navy ([London], 1986). A detailed social history of the eighteenth-century navy, emphasising the role of personal networks in the mobilisation and organisation of manpower and how these increasingly came under pressure after 1775, and were replaced by harsher forms of discipline.

Rodger, N. A. M., The Command of the Ocean: A Naval History of Britain, 1649-1815 (London, 2005). Comprehensive study of the operations, administration and social history of the British navy from its emergence as a professional standing force in the 1650s to become the dominant naval power in Europe and the wider world after 1815.

Rogers, N., The Press Gang: Naval Impressment and Its Opponents in Georgian Britain (London, 2007).

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Social history of the press gang and naval impressment during the eighteenth century, emphasising the unpopularity of the press and the various methods used to resist or escape impressment, both in Britain and in colonial territories.

Roseveare, H., The Treasury, 1660-1870: The Foundations of Control, Historical Problems--Studies and Documents (London, 1973). Broad survey of the development of the British Treasury after 1660, emphasising the impact of warfare in driving financial expansion and administrative change, and the political battles necessary to secure Treasury control of spending.

Roseveare, H., The Financial Revolution, 1660-1760 (London, 1991). A short survey of the financial revolution in Britain, based mainly on Dickson, 1956.

Salvucci, Richard, Politics, markets and Mexico’s London debt, 1823-1887Econometric study of Mexican loans floated on the British market after 1823, and the financial structures and political and diplomatic negotiations which enabled them.

Satow, E. M., The Silesian Loan and Frederick the Great (Oxford, 1915). Detailed study of the intersections between politics, finance, diplomacy and naval warfare in the case of the Silesion Loan made by Britain to the Habsburgs in the mid-eighteenth century and secured on their Silesian revenues, and whether the Prussian conquest meant that the Hohenzollerns were now responsible for the loan.

Schonharl, Korinna, ‘Why does a prestigious emission house emit a loan for a peripheral state? The house of Rothschild and the Greek guaranteed loan of 1833’, Business History (2019)

Schwoerer, L. G., No Standing Armies!: The Anti-Army Ideology in Seventeenth-Century England (London, 1974). Intellectual and ideological study of the Standing Army Controversy in Britain in 1697, and the debates over whether to accept the continuation of a standing professional army or return to a militia force, based on the experience of warfare.

Scott, J. ‘"Good Night Amsterdam": Sir George Downing and Anglo-Dutch Statebuilding’, English Historical Review 118, no. 476 (2003), 334-356. Study of the impact of the Dutch state on English state formation after 1660, emphasising the role of Sir George Downing, the English ambassador to the Republic, as a conduit for institutional reforms modelled on Dutch precedents.

Scott, W. R., The Constitution and Finance of English, Scottish and Irish Joint-Stock Companies to 1720 (3 vols., New York, 1951). Highly detailed study of financial projects during the early phases of the financial revolution, including major semi-public corporations such as the Bank of England, the East India Company and the South Sea Company, up to the Bubble of 1720-1.

Scouller, R. E., The Armies of Queen Anne (Oxford, 1966). Comprehensive if rather unimaginative study of British armies and military administration during the War of the Spanish Succession.

Sherwig, J., Guineas and gunpowder: British foreign aid, 1793-1815 (1969) Detailed study of subsidies and British diplomacy during the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, emphasising the interplay of political, diplomatic, financial and military concerns, but written mainly from the British point of view.

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Simms, B., Three Victories and a Defeat: The Rise and Fall of the First British Empire, 1714-1783 (London, 2007). Wide-ranging and ambitious survey of British diplomacy during the eighteenth century, emphasising the importance of European alliances for British military victories and the dramatic consequences after 1775 when Britain faced European armies alone.

Smith, Barbara M.D., ‘The Galtons of Birmingham: Quaker gun merchants and bankers, 1702-1831’, Business History, 9 (1967), 132-50.

Sperling, J. ‘Godolphin and the Organization of Public Credit, 1702-1710’, University of Cambridge, 1955). Detailed study of the management of public finance and taxation under Godolphin during the War of the Spanish Succession, emphasising the importance of close relations with the City of London for maintaining confidence in English public debt.

Stapleton, J. M. ‘The Blue-Water Dimension of King William's War: Amphibious Operations and Allied Strategy During the Nine Years War, 1688-1697’, in D. J. B. Trim and M. C. Fissel (eds.), Amphibious Warfare 1000-1700: Commerce, State Formation and European Expansion, (Leiden, 2006), pp. 315-356. Applies Baugh’s work on the English ‘blue water strategy’ to examine how these views shaped British military strategy and policy during the Nine Years War.

Starkey, David J., British Privateering Enterprise in the Eighteenth Century (Exeter, 1990). Detailed history of British privateering in the eighteenth century, examining not only its military impact but also the commercial concerns which most privateers faced, and the success of the policy of contracting out this function to private individuals.

Stone, L. (ed.), An Imperial State at War: Britain from 1689 to 1815 (London, 1993). Important series of contributions by leading scholars in reaction to Brewer, The Sinews of Power, exploring in particular its implications for understanding other areas of British history.

Strachan, Hew, Wellington's Legacy: The Reform of the British Army, 1830-54 (Manchester, 1984). Examines the administration of the British army in the early Victorian period, arguing that Wellington’s immense prestige and conservative influence meant that the army failed to enact major reforms and entered the Crimean War largely unchanged from Waterloo.

Sundstrom, R. A., Sidney Godolphin: Servant of the State (Newark, 1992). Biographical study of Godolphin as Lord Treasurer in the 1690s and 1700s, emphasising his success in managing the Treasury and relations with financial markets in London in order to create confidence for investors.

Sussman, Nathan and Yafeh, Yishay, ‘Institutional Reforms, Financial Development and Sovereign Debt: Britain 1690-1790’, Journal of Economic History 66, no. 4 (2006), 906-35. Responds to the credible commitment debate by arguing that institutional reforms had only a limited impact on the interest rate, and that other factors, such as the successful development of trust and reputation, underpinned British financial power.

Sutherland, L. S., ‘Samson Gideon and the Reduction of Interest, 1749-50’, The Economic History Review16, no. 1 (1946), 15-29.

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Examines the successful reduction of interest on British debt from 5 pct to 4 pct in 1749, and the role of Jewish financier Samuel Gideon as an intermediary in negotiations between the Treasury and key investors such as the Bank of England.

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F11. VENICE

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Peled, Alon, A Question of Loyalty: Military Manpower Policy in Multi-ethnic States (Ithaca, 1998: Cornell)

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Roper, L.H., Constructing Early Modern Empires: Proprietary Ventures in the Atlantic World, 1500-1750(Leiden: Brill, 2007)

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Wellen, Kathryn, ‘The Danish East India Company’s war against the Mughal Empire, 1642-1698’, Journal of Early Modern History, 19 (2015), 439-61


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